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Olympic ice skaters are able to spin at about 5 rev/s.
(a) What is their angular velocity in radians per second?
(b) What is the centripetal acceleration of the skater’s nose if it is 0.120 m from the axis of rotation?
(c) An exceptional skater named Dick Button was able to spin much faster in the 1950s than anyone since—at about 9 rev/s. What was the centripetal acceleration of the tip of his nose, assuming it is at 0.120 m radius?
(d) Comment on the magnitudes of the accelerations found. It is reputed that Button ruptured small blood vessels during his spins.
a) $\text{31.4 rad/s}$
b) $\text{118 m/s}$
c) $\text{384 m/s}$
d)The centripetal acceleration felt by Olympic skaters is 12 times larger than the acceleration due to gravity. That’s quite a lot of acceleration in itself. The centripetal acceleration felt by Button’s nose was 39.2 times larger than the acceleration due to gravity. It is no wonder that he ruptured small blood vessels in his spins.
What percentage of the acceleration at Earth’s surface is the acceleration due to gravity at the position of a satellite located 300 km above Earth?
Verify that the linear speed of an ultracentrifuge is about 0.50 km/s, and Earth in its orbit is about 30 km/s by calculating:
(a) The linear speed of a point on an ultracentrifuge 0.100 m from its center, rotating at 50,000 rev/min.
(b) The linear speed of Earth in its orbit about the Sun (use data from the text on the radius of Earth’s orbit and approximate it as being circular).
a) 0.524 km/s
b) 29.7 km/s
A rotating space station is said to create “artificial gravity”—a loosely-defined term used for an acceleration that would be crudely similar to gravity. The outer wall of the rotating space station would become a floor for the astronauts, and centripetal acceleration supplied by the floor would allow astronauts to exercise and maintain muscle and bone strength more naturally than in non-rotating space environments. If the space station is 200 m in diameter, what angular velocity would produce an “artificial gravity” of $9\text{.}\text{80}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m/s}}^{2}$ at the rim?
At takeoff, a commercial jet has a 60.0 m/s speed. Its tires have a diameter of 0.850 m.
(a) At how many rev/min are the tires rotating?
(b) What is the centripetal acceleration at the edge of the tire?
(c) With what force must a determined $1\text{.}\text{00}\times {\text{10}}^{-\text{15}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}$ bacterium cling to the rim?
(d) Take the ratio of this force to the bacterium’s weight.
(a) $\text{1.35}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{3}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{rpm}$
(b) $\text{8.47}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{3}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m/s}}^{\text{2}}$
(c) $\text{8.47}\times {\text{10}}^{\text{\u201312}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$
(d) $\text{865}$
Integrated Concepts
Riders in an amusement park ride shaped like a Viking ship hung from a large pivot are rotated back and forth like a rigid pendulum. Sometime near the middle of the ride, the ship is momentarily motionless at the top of its circular arc. The ship then swings down under the influence of gravity.
(a) Assuming negligible friction, find the speed of the riders at the bottom of its arc, given the system's center of mass travels in an arc having a radius of 14.0 m and the riders are near the center of mass.
(b) What is the centripetal acceleration at the bottom of the arc?
(c) Draw a free body diagram of the forces acting on a rider at the bottom of the arc.
(d) Find the force exerted by the ride on a 60.0 kg rider and compare it to her weight.
(e) Discuss whether the answer seems reasonable.
(a) $\text{16.6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$
(b) $\text{19.6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}/{\text{s}}^{2}$
(c)
(d) $\text{1}.\text{76}\times {\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N or 3}.\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}w$ , that is, the normal force (upward) is three times her weight.
(e) This answer seems reasonable, since she feels like she’s being forced into the chair MUCH stronger than just by gravity.
Unreasonable Results
A mother pushes her child on a swing so that his speed is 9.00 m/s at the lowest point of his path. The swing is suspended 2.00 m above the child’s center of mass.
(a) What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the child at the low point?
(b) What is the magnitude of the force the child exerts on the seat if his mass is 18.0 kg?
(c) What is unreasonable about these results?
(d) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent?
a) $\text{40}.5\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}/{\text{s}}^{2}$
b) 905 N
c) The force in part (b) is very large. The acceleration in part (a) is too much, about 4 g.
d) The speed of the swing is too large. At the given velocity at the bottom of the swing, there is enough kinetic energy to send the child all the way over the top, ignoring friction.
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