So far, we have defined three rotational quantities—
$\theta ,\omega $ , and
$\alpha $ . These quantities are analogous to the translational quantities
$x,v$ , and
$a$ .
[link] displays rotational quantities, the analogous translational quantities, and the relationships between them.
Rotational and translational quantities
Rotational
Translational
Relationship
$$\theta $$
$$x$$
$$\theta =\frac{x}{r}$$
$$\omega $$
$$v$$
$$\omega =\frac{v}{r}$$
$$\alpha $$
$$a$$
$$\alpha =\frac{{a}_{t}}{r}$$
Making connections: take-home experiment
Sit down with your feet on the ground on a chair that rotates. Lift one of your legs such that it is unbent (straightened out). Using the other leg, begin to rotate yourself by pushing on the ground. Stop using your leg to push the ground but allow the chair to rotate. From the origin where you began, sketch the angle, angular velocity, and angular acceleration of your leg as a function of time in the form of three separate graphs. Estimate the magnitudes of these quantities.
Angular acceleration is a vector, having both magnitude and direction. How do we denote its magnitude and direction? Illustrate with an example.
The magnitude of angular acceleration is
$\alpha $ and its most common units are
${\text{rad/s}}^{2}$ . The direction of angular acceleration along a fixed axis is denoted by a + or a – sign, just as the direction of linear acceleration in one dimension is denoted by a + or a – sign. For example, consider a gymnast doing a forward flip. Her angular momentum would be parallel to the mat and to her left. The magnitude of her angular acceleration would be proportional to her angular velocity (spin rate) and her moment of inertia about her spin axis.
Phet explorations: ladybug revolution
Join the ladybug in an exploration of rotational motion. Rotate the merry-go-round to change its angle, or choose a constant angular velocity or angular acceleration. Explore how circular motion relates to the bug's x,y position, velocity, and acceleration using vectors or graphs.
Section summary
Uniform circular motion is the motion with a constant angular velocity
$\omega =\frac{\mathrm{\Delta}\theta}{\mathrm{\Delta}t}$ .
In non-uniform circular motion, the velocity changes with time and the rate of change of angular velocity (i.e. angular acceleration) is
$\alpha =\frac{\mathrm{\Delta}\omega}{\mathrm{\Delta}t}$ .
Linear or tangential acceleration refers to changes in the magnitude of velocity but not its direction, given as
${a}_{\text{t}}=\frac{\mathrm{\Delta}v}{\mathrm{\Delta}t}$ .
For circular motion, note that
$v=\mathrm{r\omega}$ , so that
By definition,
$\mathrm{\Delta}\omega /\mathrm{\Delta}t=\alpha $ . Thus,
${a}_{\text{t}}=\mathrm{r\alpha}$
or
$\alpha =\frac{{a}_{\text{t}}}{r}.$
Conceptual questions
Analogies exist between rotational and translational physical quantities. Identify the rotational term analogous to each of the following: acceleration, force, mass, work, translational kinetic energy, linear momentum, impulse.
Explain why centripetal acceleration changes the direction of velocity in circular motion but not its magnitude.
In circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction. Explain your answer.
Suppose a piece of food is on the edge of a rotating microwave oven plate. Does it experience nonzero tangential acceleration, centripetal acceleration, or both when: (a) The plate starts to spin? (b) The plate rotates at constant angular velocity? (c) The plate slows to a halt?
Problems&Exercises
At its peak, a tornado is 60.0 m in diameter and carries 500 km/h winds. What is its angular velocity in revolutions per second?
$\omega =0\text{.}\text{737 rev/s}$
Integrated Concepts
An ultracentrifuge accelerates from rest to 100,000 rpm in 2.00 min. (a) What is its angular acceleration in
${\text{rad/s}}^{2}$ ? (b) What is the tangential acceleration of a point 9.50 cm from the axis of rotation? (c) What is the radial acceleration in
${\text{m/s}}^{2}$ and multiples of
$g$ of this point at full rpm?
Integrated Concepts
You have a grindstone (a disk) that is 90.0 kg, has a 0.340-m radius, and is turning at 90.0 rpm, and you press a steel axe against it with a radial force of 20.0 N. (a) Assuming the kinetic coefficient of friction between steel and stone is 0.20, calculate the angular acceleration of the grindstone. (b) How many turns will the stone make before coming to rest?
You are told that a basketball player spins the ball with an angular acceleration of
$\text{100}{\text{rad/s}}^{2}$ . (a) What is the ball’s final angular velocity if the ball starts from rest and the acceleration lasts 2.00 s? (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent?
Questions & Answers
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?