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So far, we have defined three rotational quantities— θ ω size 12{θ,ω} {} , and α size 12{α} {} . These quantities are analogous to the translational quantities x v size 12{x,v} {} , and a size 12{a} {} . [link] displays rotational quantities, the analogous translational quantities, and the relationships between them.

Rotational and translational quantities
Rotational Translational Relationship
θ size 12{θ} {} x size 12{x} {} θ = x r size 12{θ= { {x} over {r} } } {}
ω size 12{ω} {} v size 12{v} {} ω = v r size 12{ω= { {v} over {r} } } {}
α size 12{α} {} a size 12{a} {} α = a t r size 12{α= { {a rSub { size 8{t} } } over {r} } } {}

Making connections: take-home experiment

Sit down with your feet on the ground on a chair that rotates. Lift one of your legs such that it is unbent (straightened out). Using the other leg, begin to rotate yourself by pushing on the ground. Stop using your leg to push the ground but allow the chair to rotate. From the origin where you began, sketch the angle, angular velocity, and angular acceleration of your leg as a function of time in the form of three separate graphs. Estimate the magnitudes of these quantities.

Angular acceleration is a vector, having both magnitude and direction. How do we denote its magnitude and direction? Illustrate with an example.

The magnitude of angular acceleration is α size 12{α} {} and its most common units are rad/s 2 size 12{"rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . The direction of angular acceleration along a fixed axis is denoted by a + or a – sign, just as the direction of linear acceleration in one dimension is denoted by a + or a – sign. For example, consider a gymnast doing a forward flip. Her angular momentum would be parallel to the mat and to her left. The magnitude of her angular acceleration would be proportional to her angular velocity (spin rate) and her moment of inertia about her spin axis.

Phet explorations: ladybug revolution

Join the ladybug in an exploration of rotational motion. Rotate the merry-go-round to change its angle, or choose a constant angular velocity or angular acceleration. Explore how circular motion relates to the bug's x,y position, velocity, and acceleration using vectors or graphs.

Ladybug Revolution

Section summary

  • Uniform circular motion is the motion with a constant angular velocity ω = Δ θ Δ t size 12{ω= { {Δθ} over {Δt} } } {} .
  • In non-uniform circular motion, the velocity changes with time and the rate of change of angular velocity (i.e. angular acceleration) is α = Δ ω Δ t size 12{α= { {Δω} over {Δt} } } {} .
  • Linear or tangential acceleration refers to changes in the magnitude of velocity but not its direction, given as a t = Δ v Δ t size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } = { {Δv} over {Δt} } } {} .
  • For circular motion, note that v = size 12{v=rω} {} , so that
    a t = Δ Δ t . size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } = { {Δ left (rω right )} over {Δt} } } {}
  • The radius r is constant for circular motion, and so Δ = r Δ ω size 12{Δ left (rω right )=rΔω} {} . Thus,
    a t = r Δ ω Δ t . size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } =r { {Δω} over {Δt} } } {}
  • By definition, Δ ω / Δ t = α size 12{ {Δω} slash {Δt=α} } {} . Thus,
    a t = size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } =rα} {}


    α = a t r . size 12{α= { {a rSub { size 8{t} } } over {r} } } {}

Conceptual questions

Analogies exist between rotational and translational physical quantities. Identify the rotational term analogous to each of the following: acceleration, force, mass, work, translational kinetic energy, linear momentum, impulse.

Explain why centripetal acceleration changes the direction of velocity in circular motion but not its magnitude.

In circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction. Explain your answer.

Suppose a piece of food is on the edge of a rotating microwave oven plate. Does it experience nonzero tangential acceleration, centripetal acceleration, or both when: (a) The plate starts to spin? (b) The plate rotates at constant angular velocity? (c) The plate slows to a halt?


At its peak, a tornado is 60.0 m in diameter and carries 500 km/h winds. What is its angular velocity in revolutions per second?

ω = 0 . 737 rev/s size 12{ω= {underline {0 "." "737 rev/s"}} } {}

Integrated Concepts

An ultracentrifuge accelerates from rest to 100,000 rpm in 2.00 min. (a) What is its angular acceleration in rad/s 2 size 12{"rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ? (b) What is the tangential acceleration of a point 9.50 cm from the axis of rotation? (c) What is the radial acceleration in m/s 2 size 12{"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and multiples of g size 12{gs} {} of this point at full rpm?

Integrated Concepts

You have a grindstone (a disk) that is 90.0 kg, has a 0.340-m radius, and is turning at 90.0 rpm, and you press a steel axe against it with a radial force of 20.0 N. (a) Assuming the kinetic coefficient of friction between steel and stone is 0.20, calculate the angular acceleration of the grindstone. (b) How many turns will the stone make before coming to rest?

(a) 0 . 26 rad/s 2 size 12{ - 0 "." "26 rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) 27 rev size 12{"27"`"rev"} {}

Unreasonable Results

You are told that a basketball player spins the ball with an angular acceleration of 100  rad/s 2 size 12{"100"``"rad/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) What is the ball’s final angular velocity if the ball starts from rest and the acceleration lasts 2.00 s? (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to applied math and physics. OpenStax CNX. Oct 04, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11426/1.3
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