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ADSR

Adsr

Attack-decay-sustain-release (adsr)

The ADSR curve models different instruments by their temporal characteristics. Instruments have varying degrees of the abruptness of the attack, the initial decay in sound, how long the sound resonates for without appreciable attenuation, and how quickly the sound fades away at the end.

Introduction

ADSR stands for attack, decay, sustain, and release and is used to model the timbre of an instrument. The timbre or tone quality is determined by various factors such as the way the sound is produced and the material of the instrument. Different families of instruments have their own characteristic ADSR profiles. The attack refers to the phase in which the sound is initiated. This could be the fast attack of a strum on a guitar or the slower one of a pipe organ. The decay phase occurs immediately after the attack impulse and describes how rapidly the sound dies. Some instruments like a drum have extremely fast decay and the sound is virtually nonexistent after the attack. The sustain profile of an instrument refers to how long the sound resonates for when it is played. String instruments such as a violin have an extremely long sustain because the violin’s sound box is receiving constant vibrational energy from the bowed string. Finally, the release phase describes how rapidly the sound fades away once the instrument is not being played.

Guitar adsr profile

The guitar has a fairly abrupt attack due to the method of playing through plucks and strums. The rapid decay is a result of the nonharmonic frequencies fading quickly leaving only the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. The sustain and release phases are merged in this case since the sound just fades away slowly.

Violin adsr profile

The violin has a slightly slower attack than the guitar but the other phases are drastically different. Because a violin is bowed to produce sound, there is virtually no decay and a very long sustain. Constant vibrational energy is delivered to the violin’s sound box and the sound only fades once the bowing stops.

Implementation

In order to synthesize different sounding instruments, the ADSR envelope could be applied directly to the output of the Karplus-Strong algorithm. Since the algorithm models string and certain percussion instruments, there were limitations on the diversity of instruments that could be synthesized using this technique. After modeling an instrument’s temporal characteristics with an ADSR envelope, one could apply it to the output of the Karplus-Strong by point-wise multiplication. By using ADSR, we were able to manipulate the guitar sounding output of the Karplus-Strong algorithm to sound like different instruments such as an organ or a bell.

Applying adsr to karplus-strong

Synthesis of different instruments in an instrument family can be achieved through applying ADSR concepts to the Karplus-Strong algorithm. The output of the Karplus-Strong is point-wise multiplied with the modeled ADSR envelope to produce the final output sound.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2008. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10633/1.1
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