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A brief history of the Ptolemaic System.

Ptolemaic System
In his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican of 1632, Galileo attacked the world system based on the cosmology of Aristotle (384-322 BCE)and the technical astronomy of Ptolemy (ca. 150 CE).

In his books On the Heavens , and Physics , Aristotle put forward his notion of an ordered universe or cosmos. It was governed by the concept ofplace , as opposed to space, and was divided into two distinct parts, the earthly or sublunary region, and the heavens. Theformer was the abode of change and corruption, where things came into being, grew, matured, decayed, and died; the latter was theregion of perfection, where there was no change. In the sublunary region, substances were made up of the four elements,earth, water, air, and fire. Earth was the heaviest, and its natural place was the center of the cosmos; for that reason theEarth was situated in the center of the cosmos. The natural places of water, air, and fire, were concentric spherical shellsaround the sphere of earth. Things were not arranged perfectly, and therefore areas of land protruded above the water. Objectssought the natural place of the element that predominated in them. Thus stones, in which earth predominated, move down to thecenter of the cosmos, and fire moves straight up. Natural motions were, then, radial, either down or up. The four elementsdiffered from each other only in their qualities. Thus, earth was cold and dry while air was warm and moist. Changing one orboth of its qualities, transmuted one element into another. Such transmutations were going on constantly, adding to the constantchange in this sublunary region.

Ptolemy

The heavens, on the other hand, were made up of an entirely different substance, the aether

The traditional English spelling, aether, is used here to distinguish Aristotle's heavenly substance from the modernchemical substance, ether.
or quintessence (fifth element), an immutable substance. Heavenly bodies were part of spherical shells of aether. Thesespherical shells fit tightly around each other, without any spaces between them, in the following order: Moon, Mercury,Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, fixed stars. Each spherical shell (hereafter, simply, sphere) had its particular rotation,that accounted for the motion of the heavenly body contained in it. Outside the sphere of the fixed stars, there was the primemover (himself unmoved), who imparted motion from the outside inward. All motions in the cosmos came ultimately from thisprime mover. The natural motions of heavenly bodies and their spheres was perfectly circular, that is, circular and neitherspeeding up nor slowing down.

It is to be noted about this universe that everything had its natural place, a privileged location for bodies with aparticular makeup, and that the laws of nature were not the same in the heavenly and the earthly regions. Further, there were noempty places or vacua anywhere. Finally, it was finite: beyond the sphere of the fixed stars and the prime mover, there wasnothing, not even space. The cosmos encompassed all existence.

Christian Aristotelian Cosmos. From Peter Apian, Cosmographia

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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