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A brief history of the Ptolemaic System.

Ptolemaic System
In his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican of 1632, Galileo attacked the world system based on the cosmology of Aristotle (384-322 BCE)and the technical astronomy of Ptolemy (ca. 150 CE).

In his books On the Heavens , and Physics , Aristotle put forward his notion of an ordered universe or cosmos. It was governed by the concept ofplace , as opposed to space, and was divided into two distinct parts, the earthly or sublunary region, and the heavens. Theformer was the abode of change and corruption, where things came into being, grew, matured, decayed, and died; the latter was theregion of perfection, where there was no change. In the sublunary region, substances were made up of the four elements,earth, water, air, and fire. Earth was the heaviest, and its natural place was the center of the cosmos; for that reason theEarth was situated in the center of the cosmos. The natural places of water, air, and fire, were concentric spherical shellsaround the sphere of earth. Things were not arranged perfectly, and therefore areas of land protruded above the water. Objectssought the natural place of the element that predominated in them. Thus stones, in which earth predominated, move down to thecenter of the cosmos, and fire moves straight up. Natural motions were, then, radial, either down or up. The four elementsdiffered from each other only in their qualities. Thus, earth was cold and dry while air was warm and moist. Changing one orboth of its qualities, transmuted one element into another. Such transmutations were going on constantly, adding to the constantchange in this sublunary region.

Ptolemy

The heavens, on the other hand, were made up of an entirely different substance, the aether

The traditional English spelling, aether, is used here to distinguish Aristotle's heavenly substance from the modernchemical substance, ether.
or quintessence (fifth element), an immutable substance. Heavenly bodies were part of spherical shells of aether. Thesespherical shells fit tightly around each other, without any spaces between them, in the following order: Moon, Mercury,Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, fixed stars. Each spherical shell (hereafter, simply, sphere) had its particular rotation,that accounted for the motion of the heavenly body contained in it. Outside the sphere of the fixed stars, there was the primemover (himself unmoved), who imparted motion from the outside inward. All motions in the cosmos came ultimately from thisprime mover. The natural motions of heavenly bodies and their spheres was perfectly circular, that is, circular and neitherspeeding up nor slowing down.

It is to be noted about this universe that everything had its natural place, a privileged location for bodies with aparticular makeup, and that the laws of nature were not the same in the heavenly and the earthly regions. Further, there were noempty places or vacua anywhere. Finally, it was finite: beyond the sphere of the fixed stars and the prime mover, there wasnothing, not even space. The cosmos encompassed all existence.

Christian Aristotelian Cosmos. From Peter Apian, Cosmographia

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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