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This kind of “rich” tools interoperability will be very demanding to get right, and will probably take quite awhile. Those working in the standards world will need to agree on core and optional features for each main type of activity tool, so as to provide a reasonable chance at interoperability as Learning Designs move between systems (eg, should a non-LAMS forum tool have the behavioural constraints described above? Would a text message to students telling them to do these things, without enforcing them in software, be sufficient for interoperability?).

As it happens, it was Tools Interoperability that ended my close involvement with the IMS specification development group. I had been closely involved with IMS for several years, and was excited when IMS decided to work on Tools Interoperability, as I felt this was key not just for Learning Design, but Learning Platforms in general. Unfortunately, it was made clear to me at the time that the Learning Design issues I was raising were not considered important at that time, so after failing to have this perspective included, I took time out from IMS, and haven’t yet returned.

There is some new work that has recently started on Version 2 of IMS Tools Interoperability, and I’ve spoken to a number of those working on this about the importance of including a Learning Design perspective, but my sense so far is that Learning Design issues are not high on the list of priorities for those leading this work. It may come as a surprise to those outside the standards world, but despite IMS releasing the Learning Design specification, the concepts of Learning Design are not well understood among most IMS participants, and it was an unpleasant surprise to discover that among the many product areas designated for potential awards at the 2007 IMS Learning Impact Conference (including many that are not the basis of IMS specifications) - Learning Design was not mentioned (see (External Link) ).

Apart from Learning Design issues for Tools Interoperability, I think there are other ideas in the LAMS Tools Contract which are worth considering for any tool, not just a Learning Design-enabled tool. For example, LAMS V2 has a new a new feature called “export portfolio” - this feature allows a student to export a static HTML record of every activity they have been involved in within a running sequence. This allows students to keep their own “offline” record of their learning, which can then be stored in an e-portfolio (hence the name) or other location. We’ve found this feature to be very popular with students who want to keep an archival copy of their learning independent of their access to a particular Learning Platform. So while this feature is not specific to Learning Design, we see it as a useful new feature to be considered as part of a rich Tools Interoperability specification.

So in summary, open standards for Learning Design are very important, but challenging to get right, at both the “flow” and “tools” level. I hope the LAMS Tools Contract provides some useful new ways of thinking about these ideas for future standards development, although I’m sorry to say that I’m quite concerned about the state of standards development in this area. It is always hard to get the balance right between innovation and consensus in standards development, but in this case, I feel that Learning Design issues in Tools Interoperability have mostly been ignored to date.

Questions & Answers

current economic plans (MDGS) needs
Ajijola Reply
I don't know what is happening
surajkumar
What is economic
Joeali Reply
What is the importance of study economics
Wilma
Economic is the study of how humans make decisions in face of sacristy
Wilma
economics is the study of how humans makes decision in the face of scarcity
Kpienta
economics is the study of human behaviour when faced with difficult situation example when goods and services are scarcity.
Sydney
what is Economic
Dauda Reply
what is 4ps of economic?
thomas Reply
production place Price product
Benedict
Criticism of elasticity
Siddikur Reply
what is unemployment
Gyamfi Reply
ohk thanks
Gyamfi
why is unemployment rapid in the country
Gyamfi
I need more explanation
Odo
what is unemployment
Munanag Reply
not working
Bethel
some one who is willing qualified to work but can't find job
jackie
Bethel...explain? please
Abubakar
some one who is willing to work but can't find job
Hawa
Yes true
Brian
which one please
Hawa
unemployment refers to the ability for someone who is capable and willing to work but could not find a job..
Mnoko
some one who not able to find a job
Dennis
please what is the secret of learning?
thomas
What is stock market?
JOHN Reply
explain the various types of cost curve
Ruth Reply
Short-run average fixed cost (SRAFC) Short-run average total cost (SRAC or SRATC) Short-run average variable cost (AVC or SRAVC) Short-run fixed cost (FC or SRFC) Short-run marginal cost (SRMC) Short-run total cost (SRTC)
Romy
what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
the external factor will remained constant, except the price
Hasib
everything being equal
Chenwi
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Nikita
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
Amjad
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
Ariel
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
NABUBOLO Reply
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
Romy
no
NABUBOLO
they deal With prices
NABUBOLO
define the elasticity
NABUBOLO
explain different types of elasticity
NABUBOLO
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
Romy
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Romy
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
Romy
anything else?
Romy
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
Grace
Romy, what is microeconomic?
thomas
What is Economic please
Dauda
Thomas, microeconomics is the study of how consumers, workers, and firms interact to generate outcomes in specific markets
Kieran
Dauda, economics is the study of people and choices. it is on one side the study of wealth and on the more important side, a part of the study if man
Kieran
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
Ramon
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
Gabriel
I Mean on the same curve..
Gabriel
how can consumer surplus be calculated
Franklyn
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Source:  OpenStax, The impact of open source software on education. OpenStax CNX. Mar 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10431/1.7
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