<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
v 2 = m 1 m 2 v 1 sin θ 1 sin θ 2

Entering known values into this equation gives

v 2 = 0 . 250 kg 0 . 400 kg 1 . 50 m/s 0 . 7071 0 . 7485 . size 12{ { {v}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{2} } = - left ( { {0 "." "250"" kg"} over {0 "." "400"" kg"} } right ) left (1 "." "50"" m/s" right ) left ( { {0 "." "7071"} over { - 0 "." "7485"} } right ) "." } {}

Thus,

v 2 = 0 . 886 m/s . size 12{ { {v}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{2} } =0 "." "886"" m/s"} {}

Discussion

It is instructive to calculate the internal kinetic energy of this two-object system before and after the collision. (This calculation is left as an end-of-chapter problem.) If you do this calculation, you will find that the internal kinetic energy is less after the collision, and so the collision is inelastic. This type of result makes a physicist want to explore the system further.

A purple ball of mass m1 and velocity v one moves in the right direction into a dark room. It collides with an object of mass m two of value zero point four zero milligrams which was initially at rest and then leaves the dark room from the top right hand side making an angle of forty-five degrees with the horizontal and at velocity v one prime. The net external force on the system is zero. The momentum before and after collision remains the same. The velocity v two prime of the mass m two and the angle theta two it would make with the horizontal after collision not given.
A collision taking place in a dark room is explored in [link] . The incoming object m 1 size 12{m rSub { size 8{1} } } {} is scattered by an initially stationary object. Only the stationary object’s mass m 2 size 12{m rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is known. By measuring the angle and speed at which m 1 size 12{m rSub { size 8{1} } } {} emerges from the room, it is possible to calculate the magnitude and direction of the initially stationary object’s velocity after the collision.

Elastic collisions of two objects with equal mass

Some interesting situations arise when the two colliding objects have equal mass and the collision is elastic. This situation is nearly the case with colliding billiard balls, and precisely the case with some subatomic particle collisions. We can thus get a mental image of a collision of subatomic particles by thinking about billiards (or pool). (Refer to [link] for masses and angles.) First, an elastic collision conserves internal kinetic energy. Again, let us assume object 2 m 2 size 12{ left (m rSub { size 8{2} } right )} {} is initially at rest. Then, the internal kinetic energy before and after the collision of two objects that have equal masses is

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 .

Because the masses are equal, m 1 = m 2 = m size 12{m rSub { size 8{1} } =m rSub { size 8{2} } =m} {} . Algebraic manipulation (left to the reader) of conservation of momentum in the x size 12{x} {} - and y size 12{y} {} -directions can show that

1 2 mv 1 2 = 1 2 mv 1 2 + 1 2 mv 2 2 + mv 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 .

(Remember that θ 2 size 12{θ rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is negative here.) The two preceding equations can both be true only if

m v 1 v 2 cos θ 1 θ 2 = 0 .

There are three ways that this term can be zero. They are

  • v 1 = 0 : head-on collision; incoming ball stops
  • v 2 = 0 : no collision; incoming ball continues unaffected
  • cos ( θ 1 θ 2 ) = 0 : angle of separation ( θ 1 θ 2 ) is 90º after the collision

All three of these ways are familiar occurrences in billiards and pool, although most of us try to avoid the second. If you play enough pool, you will notice that the angle between the balls is very close to 90º size 12{"90"°} {} after the collision, although it will vary from this value if a great deal of spin is placed on the ball. (Large spin carries in extra energy and a quantity called angular momentum , which must also be conserved.) The assumption that the scattering of billiard balls is elastic is reasonable based on the correctness of the three results it produces. This assumption also implies that, to a good approximation, momentum is conserved for the two-ball system in billiards and pool. The problems below explore these and other characteristics of two-dimensional collisions.

Connections to nuclear and particle physics

Two-dimensional collision experiments have revealed much of what we know about subatomic particles, as we shall see in Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics . Ernest Rutherford, for example, discovered the nature of the atomic nucleus from such experiments.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to applied math and physics. OpenStax CNX. Oct 04, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11426/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introduction to applied math and physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask