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The indian subcontinent

In the last chapter we discussed the southern and eastern expansion of the invading Aryans. Their migration soon became sharply limited because the "forest people" they encountered had endemic tropical and parasitical infestations flourishing in the moist, warm climate which meant death and destruction to the invaders. The aboriginal forest people were only gradually incorporated in special castes, thru in effect isolating them from the conquerors, and this was another element in the development of the caste system. It was only after some adaptation to disease and the advent of iron, in about 800 B.C., that the Aryan Vedics began to actually clear the forest of northern India preparatory for farming and large scale agriculture. (Ref. 140 , 8 )

In the south, tiny communities developed in the fragmented land, each with its own religious, political and economic life. Distinctive megalithic cultures grew up around Madres, Kerala and Mysore. Sea-faring peoples at the tip of the peninsula traded by sea with the Middle East, shipping ivory, spices and the cotton plants to Mesopotamia. It is of considerable interest that doimens, very similar to those of Europe's second and third millennia B.C., have been found throughout India, but none seem to date before the 8th century B.C. and some much later. (Ref. 8 , 136 , 215 )

The organization and writing of the Vedas rituals began about 1,000 B.C. and probably continued for 500 years. The writing of the Upanishads began about 800 B.C. and continued for about 300 years. The latter consisted of 108 discourses by various teachers, saints and sages with the resulting opinions and philosophies of many men. The belief in transmigration appeared there. According to Toynbee's theories (Ref. 220 ) this is the height of the original Vedic Society. Of incidental note is the legend in Sri Lanka that King Solomon sent emissaries to the fabled city of Gems, Ratnapura, to get precious stones with which to woo the Queen of Sheba. (Ref. 108 )

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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