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  • Discuss the single slit diffraction pattern.

Light passing through a single slit forms a diffraction pattern somewhat different from those formed by double slits or diffraction gratings. [link] shows a single slit diffraction pattern. Note that the central maximum is larger than those on either side, and that the intensity decreases rapidly on either side. In contrast, a diffraction grating produces evenly spaced lines that dim slowly on either side of center.

Part a of the figure shows a slit in a vertical bar. To the right of the bar is a graph of intensity versus height. The graph is turned ninety degrees counterclockwise so that the intensity scale increases to the left and the height increases as you go up the page. Just in front of the gap, a strong central peak extends leftward from the graph’s baseline, and many smaller satellite peaks appear above and below this central peak. Part b of the figure shows a drawing of the two-dimensional intensity pattern that is observed from single slit diffraction. The central stripe is quite broad compared to the satellite stripes, and there are dark areas between all the stripes.
(a) Single slit diffraction pattern. Monochromatic light passing through a single slit has a central maximum and many smaller and dimmer maxima on either side. The central maximum is six times higher than shown. (b) The drawing shows the bright central maximum and dimmer and thinner maxima on either side.

The analysis of single slit diffraction is illustrated in [link] . Here we consider light coming from different parts of the same slit. According to Huygens’s principle, every part of the wavefront in the slit emits wavelets. These are like rays that start out in phase and head in all directions. (Each ray is perpendicular to the wavefront of a wavelet.) Assuming the screen is very far away compared with the size of the slit, rays heading toward a common destination are nearly parallel. When they travel straight ahead, as in [link] (a), they remain in phase, and a central maximum is obtained. However, when rays travel at an angle θ size 12{θ} {} relative to the original direction of the beam, each travels a different distance to a common location, and they can arrive in or out of phase. In [link] (b), the ray from the bottom travels a distance of one wavelength λ size 12{λ} {} farther than the ray from the top. Thus a ray from the center travels a distance λ / 2 size 12{λ/2} {} farther than the one on the left, arrives out of phase, and interferes destructively. A ray from slightly above the center and one from slightly above the bottom will also cancel one another. In fact, each ray from the slit will have another to interfere destructively, and a minimum in intensity will occur at this angle. There will be another minimum at the same angle to the right of the incident direction of the light.

The figure shows four schematics of a ray bundle passing through a single slit. The slit is represented as a gap in a vertical line. In the first schematic, the ray bundle passes horizontally through the slit. This schematic is labeled theta equals zero and bright. The second schematic is labeled dark and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit an angle of roughly fifteen degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom ray is lambda, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals lambda over d. The third schematic is labeled bright and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit at an angle of about twenty five degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom rays is three lambda over two d, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals three lambda over two d. The final schematic is labeled dark and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit at an angle of about forty degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom rays is two lambda over d, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals two lambda over d.
Light passing through a single slit is diffracted in all directions and may interfere constructively or destructively, depending on the angle. The difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is seen to be D sin θ size 12{D`"sin"`θ} {} .

At the larger angle shown in [link] (c), the path lengths differ by / 2 size 12{3λ/2} {} for rays from the top and bottom of the slit. One ray travels a distance λ size 12{λ} {} different from the ray from the bottom and arrives in phase, interfering constructively. Two rays, each from slightly above those two, will also add constructively. Most rays from the slit will have another to interfere with constructively, and a maximum in intensity will occur at this angle. However, all rays do not interfere constructively for this situation, and so the maximum is not as intense as the central maximum. Finally, in [link] (d), the angle shown is large enough to produce a second minimum. As seen in the figure, the difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is D sin θ size 12{D`"sin"θ} {} , and we see that a destructive minimum is obtained when this distance is an integral multiple of the wavelength.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Yupparaj english program physics corresponding to thai physics book #3. OpenStax CNX. May 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11657/1.1
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