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A brief history of Saturn.


To all serious observers of the heaven, it was known that stars move in a fixed formation around the Earth except for seven bodies that moved through the fixed stars in a wide band, the zodiac. To the Greeks, all heavenly bodies were stars; most were fixed but some wandered. These seven wandering stars, or planets, were (in the conventional order), Moon , Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. Mercury was the most difficult to observe because it was always close to the Sun, Venus, as morning or evening star, was the brightest body in the heavens. Mars had a distinctive red color, Jupiter at opposition was very bright, and the straw-colored Saturn, the slowest of all planets ( sidereal period 30 years), was the dimmest. The planets were identified with gods by the Mesopotamians, and the Greeks copied this system, assigning planets the names of their gods. The planets were also associated with the seven known metals: Moon/silver, Mercury/mercury, Venus/copper, Sun/gold. Mars/iron, Jupiter/tin, and Saturn/lead. In accordance with their gods, the planets were assigned astrological meanings still used by the astrologers who write daily columns in many of our newspapers.

Saturn as the grim reaper

Saturn, associated with time and the grim reaper, was usually depicted with a scythe. According to the prevailing cosmology of Aristotle, Western astronomers knew that, like all other heavenly bodies, the planet Saturn was perfect and spherical. The telescope therefore gave them a surprise. After publishing Sidereus Nuncius , in March 1610, Galileo continued scrutinizing the heavens, especially the planets, in the hope of making further discoveries. In July, as Saturn was bright in the evening sky and approaching opposition,

At opposition, Saturn is 180 degrees removed from the Sun and crosses the meridian at midnight. It is then closest to the Earth and therefore at its brightest.
he turned his telescope toward it and made a new discovery. On 30 July he wrote to his Medici patron:
I discovered another very strange wonder, which I should like to make known to their Highnesses . . . , keeping it secret, however, until the time when my work is published . . . . the star of Saturn is not a single star, but is a compsite of three, which almost touch each other, never change or move relative to each other, and are arranged in a row along the zodiac, the middle one being three times larger than the lateral ones, and they are situated in this form: oOo.

Galileo no doubt planned to publish this new discovery in his next book, but in the meantime, how could he preserve his priority and prevent others from claiming the discovery as their own? His solution was to circulate an anagram, s m a i s m r m i l m e p o e t a l e u m i b u n e n u g t t a u i r a s. Others would know that he had discovered something and when he had discovered it, but they would not known what the discovery was. The number of letters in the anagram, 37, was too small to allow him later to fudge and change the solution to describe a discovery made by someone else in the meantime. Before the days of scientific papers (invented in the 1660s) this was an effective (if not always foolproof) method of claiming priority.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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