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A brief history of Saturn.


To all serious observers of the heaven, it was known that stars move in a fixed formation around the Earth except for seven bodies that moved through the fixed stars in a wide band, the zodiac. To the Greeks, all heavenly bodies were stars; most were fixed but some wandered. These seven wandering stars, or planets, were (in the conventional order), Moon , Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. Mercury was the most difficult to observe because it was always close to the Sun, Venus, as morning or evening star, was the brightest body in the heavens. Mars had a distinctive red color, Jupiter at opposition was very bright, and the straw-colored Saturn, the slowest of all planets ( sidereal period 30 years), was the dimmest. The planets were identified with gods by the Mesopotamians, and the Greeks copied this system, assigning planets the names of their gods. The planets were also associated with the seven known metals: Moon/silver, Mercury/mercury, Venus/copper, Sun/gold. Mars/iron, Jupiter/tin, and Saturn/lead. In accordance with their gods, the planets were assigned astrological meanings still used by the astrologers who write daily columns in many of our newspapers.

Saturn as the grim reaper

Saturn, associated with time and the grim reaper, was usually depicted with a scythe. According to the prevailing cosmology of Aristotle, Western astronomers knew that, like all other heavenly bodies, the planet Saturn was perfect and spherical. The telescope therefore gave them a surprise. After publishing Sidereus Nuncius , in March 1610, Galileo continued scrutinizing the heavens, especially the planets, in the hope of making further discoveries. In July, as Saturn was bright in the evening sky and approaching opposition,

At opposition, Saturn is 180 degrees removed from the Sun and crosses the meridian at midnight. It is then closest to the Earth and therefore at its brightest.
he turned his telescope toward it and made a new discovery. On 30 July he wrote to his Medici patron:
I discovered another very strange wonder, which I should like to make known to their Highnesses . . . , keeping it secret, however, until the time when my work is published . . . . the star of Saturn is not a single star, but is a compsite of three, which almost touch each other, never change or move relative to each other, and are arranged in a row along the zodiac, the middle one being three times larger than the lateral ones, and they are situated in this form: oOo.

Galileo no doubt planned to publish this new discovery in his next book, but in the meantime, how could he preserve his priority and prevent others from claiming the discovery as their own? His solution was to circulate an anagram, s m a i s m r m i l m e p o e t a l e u m i b u n e n u g t t a u i r a s. Others would know that he had discovered something and when he had discovered it, but they would not known what the discovery was. The number of letters in the anagram, 37, was too small to allow him later to fudge and change the solution to describe a discovery made by someone else in the meantime. Before the days of scientific papers (invented in the 1660s) this was an effective (if not always foolproof) method of claiming priority.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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