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Muscles of the eyes

The left panel shows the lateral view of the muscles for the right eye, and the right panel shows the anterior view of the muscles for the right eye.
(a) The extrinsic eye muscles originate outside of the eye on the skull. (b) Each muscle inserts onto the eyeball.
Muscles of the Eyes
Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion
Moves eyes up and toward nose; rotates eyes from 1 o’clock to 3 o’clock Eyeballs Superior (elevates); medial (adducts) Superior rectus Common tendinous ring (ring attaches to optic foramen) Superior surface of eyeball
Moves eyes down and toward nose; rotates eyes from 6 o’clock to 3 o’clock Eyeballs Inferior (depresses); medial (adducts) Inferior rectus Common tendinous ring (ring attaches to optic foramen) Inferior surface of eyeball
Moves eyes away from nose Eyeballs Lateral (abducts) Lateral rectus Common tendinous ring (ring attaches to optic foramen) Lateral surface of eyeball
Moves eyes toward nose Eyeballs Medial (adducts) Medial rectus Common tendinous ring (ring attaches to optic foramen) Medial surface of eyeball
Moves eyes up and away from nose; rotates eyeball from 12 o’clock to 9 o’clock Eyeballs Superior (elevates); lateral (abducts) Inferior oblique Floor of orbit (maxilla) Surface of eyeball between inferior rectus and lateral rectus
Moves eyes down and away from nose; rotates eyeball from 6 o’clock to 9 o’clock Eyeballs Superior (elevates); lateral (abducts) Superior oblique Sphenoid bone Suface of eyeball between superior rectus and lateral rectus
Opens eyes Upper eyelid Superior (elevates) Levator palpabrae superioris Roof of orbit (sphenoid bone) Skin of upper eyelids
Closes eyelids Eyelid skin Compression along superior–inferior axis Orbicularis oculi Medial bones composing the orbit Circumference of orbit

Muscles that move the lower jaw

In anatomical terminology, chewing is called mastication    . Muscles involved in chewing must be able to exert enough pressure to bite through and then chew food before it is swallowed ( [link] and [link] ). The masseter    muscle is the main muscle used for chewing because it elevates the mandible (lower jaw) to close the mouth, and it is assisted by the temporalis    muscle, which retracts the mandible. You can feel the temporalis move by putting your fingers to your temple as you chew.

Muscles that move the lower jaw

The left panel of this figure shows the superficial chewing muscles in face, and the right panel shows the deep chewing muscles.
The muscles that move the lower jaw are typically located within the cheek and originate from processes in the skull. This provides the jaw muscles with the large amount of leverage needed for chewing.
Muscles of the Lower Jaw
Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion
Closes mouth; aids chewing Mandible Superior (elevates) Masseter Maxilla arch; zygomatic arch (for masseter) Mandible
Closes mouth; pulls lower jaw in under upper jaw Mandible Superior (elevates); posterior (retracts) Temporalis Temporal bone Mandible
Opens mouth; pushes lower jaw out under upper jaw; moves lower jaw side-to-side Mandible Inferior (depresses); posterior (protracts); lateral (abducts); medial (adducts) Lateral pterygoid Pterygoid process of sphenoid bone Mandible
Closes mouth; pushes lower jaw out under upper jaw; moves lower jaw side-to-side Mandible Superior (elevates); posterior (protracts); lateral (abducts); medial (adducts) Medial pterygoid Sphenoid bone; maxilla Mandible; temporo-mandibular joint

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
Amos
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
Frank
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
Alao
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
bisham
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Frank
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Frank
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
Frank
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
Frank
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
Harika
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
Mbah
what is money
Mbah
Difine macro economics
agaba
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Wesonga
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
Wesonga
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
Jane
what are implications of computing national income?.
agaba
pl
MUDASIRU
what is the formulae for calculating national income
MUDASIRU
it calculated by value added method
Praveen
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
Praveen
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Ogbaji
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
Praveen
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
assani
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
Yonathan
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
assani
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
BADAMASIU
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
assani
Politics
Job
politics has done what?
assani
consider time assani
Mary
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
Emmanuel
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
Emmanuel
🙈
Emmanuel
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
Emmanuel
I think the main causes of unemployment is lack of INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OVER POPULATION OVER DEPENDENT ON GOVERNMENT LACK OF SELF EMPOWERMENT...
ananti
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Vishal
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
Joe
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
Joe
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Emmanuel
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
dajan
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Alao
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
Emmanuel
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
Alao
thanks Alae
Emmanuel
u are welcome
Alao
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
Joe
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
sj
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
Seth
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Joe
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Baraka
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
Anita
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Pranav
Don't get you
Anita
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
Onyeking
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Pranav
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology: support and movement. OpenStax CNX. Aug 21, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11700/1.1
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