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A random sample of 25 statistics students was asked: “Have you smoked a cigarette in the past week?” Six students reported smoking within the past week. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 95% confidence interval for the true proportion of statistics students who smoke.

Solution b

Reminder

Remember that the plus-four method assume an additional four trials: two successes and two failures. You do not need to change the process for calculating the confidence interval; simply update the values of x and n to reflect these additional trials.

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.113, 0.439).

Try it

Out of a random sample of 65 freshmen at State University, 31 students have declared a major. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 96% confidence interval for the true proportion of freshmen at State University who have declared a major.

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.355, 0.602).

The Berkman Center for Internet&Society at Harvard recently conducted a study analyzing the privacy management habits of teen internet users. In a group of 50 teens, 13 reported having more than 500 friends on Facebook. Use the “plus four” method to find a 90% confidence interval for the true proportion of teens who would report having more than 500 Facebook friends.

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.178, 0.378).

Try it

The Berkman Center Study referenced in [link] talked to teens in smaller focus groups, but also interviewed additional teens over the phone. When the study was complete, 588 teens had answered the question about their Facebook friends with 159 saying that they have more than 500 friends. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 90% confidence interval for the true proportion of teens that would report having more than 500 Facebook friends based on this larger sample. Compare the results to those in [link] .

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.242, 0.302).

Conclusion: The confidence interval for the larger sample is narrower than the interval from [link] . Larger samples will always yield more precise confidence intervals than smaller samples. The “plus four” method has a greater impact on the smaller sample. It shifts the point estimate from 0.26 (13/50) to 0.278 (15/54). It has a smaller impact on the EPB , changing it from 0.102 to 0.100. In the larger sample, the point estimate undergoes a smaller shift: from 0.270 (159/588) to 0.272 (161/592). It is easy to see that the plus-four method has the greatest impact on smaller samples.

Calculating the sample size n

If researchers desire a specific margin of error, then they can use the error bound formula to calculate the required sample size.

The error bound formula for a population proportion is

  • E B P = ( z α 2 ) ( p q n )
  • Solving for n gives you an equation for the sample size.
  • n = ( z α 2 ) 2 ( p q ) E B P 2

Suppose a mobile phone company wants to determine the current percentage of customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones. How many customers aged 50+ should the company survey in order to be 90% confident that the estimated (sample) proportion is within three percentage points of the true population proportion of customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones.

From the problem, we know that EBP = 0.03 (3%=0.03) and z α 2 z 0.05 = 1.645 because the confidence level is 90%.

However, in order to find n , we need to know the estimated (sample) proportion p ′. Remember that q ′ = 1 – p ′. But, we do not know p ′ yet. Since we multiply p ′ and q ′ together, we make them both equal to 0.5 because p q ′ = (0.5)(0.5) = 0.25 results in the largest possible product. (Try other products: (0.6)(0.4) = 0.24; (0.3)(0.7) = 0.21; (0.2)(0.8) = 0.16 and so on). The largest possible product gives us the largest n . This gives us a large enough sample so that we can be 90% confident that we are within three percentage points of the true population proportion. To calculate the sample size n , use the formula and make the substitutions.

n = z 2 p q E B P 2 gives n = 1.645 2 ( 0.5 ) ( 0.5 ) 0.03 2 = 751.7

Round the answer to the next higher value. The sample size should be 752 cell phone customers aged 50+ in order to be 90% confident that the estimated (sample) proportion is within three percentage points of the true population proportion of all customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistics i - math1020 - red river college - version 2015 revision a - draft 2015-10-24. OpenStax CNX. Oct 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11891/1.8
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