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As you can learn at (External Link) , the list also includes:

  • Static initializer blocks
  • Instance initializers

Can also contain other class definitions

In this and the next two modules, you will learn that a class definition can also contain the following three kinds of inner classes :

  • Member classes
  • Local classes
  • Anonymous classes

A class can also contain Nested top-level classes and interfaces , which you can learn about at (External Link) .

(Note that it is questionable whether a nested top-level class or interface should be referred to as an inner class, because an object of anested top-level class can exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class. Regardless of whether the term inner class applies, anested top-level class is defined within the definition of another class, so its definition is internal to the definitionof another class.)

This module will be dedicated to an explanation of member classes . Subsequent modules will explain the other two types of inner classes in the above list .

What is a member class ?

A member class is a class that is defined inside the definition of another class, (without the use of the static modifier as is the case with a nested top-level class).

An object of the member class must be internally linked to an object of the enclosing class, (which is not the case with a nested top-level class).

Thus, a member class is truly an inner class. (An object of the member class cannot exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class.)

What about a member interface ?

Interfaces defined within classes are implicitly static. This means that they are always top-level. There is no such thing as a member interface, a local interface, or an anonymous interface.

Why use member classes ?

Probably the most important benefit of member classes has to do with accessing the other members of enclosing classes. The methods of a member classhave direct access to all the members of the enclosing classes, including private members. Thus the use of member classes can eliminate the requirement toconnect objects together via constructor parameters.

This is particularly useful in those cases where there is no reason for an object of a member class to exist in the absence of an object of the enclosingclass, and where the methods of the object of the member class need access to members of the object of the enclosing class.

Data structures and iterators

For example, there is usually no reason for an Iterator object to exist in the absence of the data-structure object for which it is designed toprovide iterator services. Also, the iterator object usually needs to have ready access to the members of the data-structure object, some or all of which may beprivate. Thus, a class from which an Iterator object can be constructed is a good candidate for inclusion as a member class in the classfrom which the associated data-structure object is instantiated.

Listener objects

Another common use for inner classes is in the definition of classes from which listener objects (which listen for events fired by other objects) are instantiated. (However, it may be more common to use anonymous classes than member classes for this purpose.)

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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