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As you can learn at (External Link) , the list also includes:

  • Static initializer blocks
  • Instance initializers

Can also contain other class definitions

In this and the next two modules, you will learn that a class definition can also contain the following three kinds of inner classes :

  • Member classes
  • Local classes
  • Anonymous classes

A class can also contain Nested top-level classes and interfaces , which you can learn about at (External Link) .

(Note that it is questionable whether a nested top-level class or interface should be referred to as an inner class, because an object of anested top-level class can exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class. Regardless of whether the term inner class applies, anested top-level class is defined within the definition of another class, so its definition is internal to the definitionof another class.)

This module will be dedicated to an explanation of member classes . Subsequent modules will explain the other two types of inner classes in the above list .

What is a member class ?

A member class is a class that is defined inside the definition of another class, (without the use of the static modifier as is the case with a nested top-level class).

An object of the member class must be internally linked to an object of the enclosing class, (which is not the case with a nested top-level class).

Thus, a member class is truly an inner class. (An object of the member class cannot exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class.)

What about a member interface ?

Interfaces defined within classes are implicitly static. This means that they are always top-level. There is no such thing as a member interface, a local interface, or an anonymous interface.

Why use member classes ?

Probably the most important benefit of member classes has to do with accessing the other members of enclosing classes. The methods of a member classhave direct access to all the members of the enclosing classes, including private members. Thus the use of member classes can eliminate the requirement toconnect objects together via constructor parameters.

This is particularly useful in those cases where there is no reason for an object of a member class to exist in the absence of an object of the enclosingclass, and where the methods of the object of the member class need access to members of the object of the enclosing class.

Data structures and iterators

For example, there is usually no reason for an Iterator object to exist in the absence of the data-structure object for which it is designed toprovide iterator services. Also, the iterator object usually needs to have ready access to the members of the data-structure object, some or all of which may beprivate. Thus, a class from which an Iterator object can be constructed is a good candidate for inclusion as a member class in the classfrom which the associated data-structure object is instantiated.

Listener objects

Another common use for inner classes is in the definition of classes from which listener objects (which listen for events fired by other objects) are instantiated. (However, it may be more common to use anonymous classes than member classes for this purpose.)

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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