# 7.2 7.3 - lab 7: the adc

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To learn what is involved in Analog to Digital Conversion.

## Background questions

• The ez430 has a 16 bit SD Converter. The number of bits used by the ADC is known as its resolution. What are the number of possible values that the 16 bit SD Converter can represent?
• Extreme voltages, either too high or too low, cannot be measured correctly. What is the range of analog voltages that can be accurately represented on the ez430? You may want to check the User's Guide or experiment with the hardware.
• In the real world, signals are polluted by "noise" that alters the quality of the original signal. Signal to Noise Ratio, SNR, is often used as a measure of the quality of a signal. Before a signal is sampled through the ADC, it is helpful to condition the signal in order to improve its SNR. What can be done to condition the signal? Where would it be ideal to condition it and why? (i.e. at the ADC, near the source, at the processor?)
• The Nyquist Theorem states that a signal must be sampled at least twice as fast as the highest frequency in order to be decoded without error. The minimum sampling frequency is therefore known as the Nyquist Sampling Rate. Typical, audio CDs are sampled at a rate of 44.1 kHz, and can be decoded to 65,536 unique voltage levels. What is the highest frequency that can be represented without error? How many bits per sample are used? What is the total data rate for a stereo CD?

• Figure out what the following codes is doing. Set up the hardware so that it functions correctly, and comment each line of code. What is the code's function? ```#include "msp430x20x3.h" void main(void) { WDTCTL |= WDTPW + WDTHOLD; DCOCTL = CALDCO_8MHZ; BCSCTL1 = CALBC1_8MHZ; P1DIR |= 0x01; SD16CTL |= SD16REFON + SD16SSEL_1; SD16INCTL0 |= SD16INCH_6; SD16CCTL0 |= SD16SC; while (1) { while ((SD16IV & SD16IFG)==0); if (SD16MEM6 >= 0xD6D8) P1OUT |= 0x01; else P1OUT &= ~0x01; _NOP(); } }```
Most modern compilers intended for use with embedded processors, such as the IAR Workbench , allow the user to check the status of the registers while the program is halted. This is extremely helpful in debugging code. For example, if the program is halted with a `_NOP()` after a sample is taken from the ADC, the user may check the `SD16MEMx` register (by setting a breakpoint at the _NOP() command) to see the new value that has been stored. If a value has changed since the last time the processor was halted, it will turn red in the watch window.
• Create a version of the program that is completely interrupt driven. The original program uses a while-loop to poll for the interrupt flag. What is the sampling rate? Remember to put the processor into a low power mode and enable interrupts after configuring the SD Converter as discussed in Lab 5

## Led dimmer

Add the file containing the LED dimmer function you wrote in Lab 4 to a new project in which you configure the SD Converter. Attach a Photo Diode (DigiKey# ********), a diode that outputs a voltage depending on the ammount of light that hits it, to any one of the SD16 inputs. Input the SD16MEMx value into the LED dimmer function in such a way that the LED's brigtness is indirectly propotional to the ammount of light that hits the Photo Diode. In other words, if we block the light to the diode, the LED should appear brighter; if we shine light on the diode, the LED should appear dimmer. If you do not have access to a Photo Diode, simply set the input to the integrated temperature sensor and perform the same exercise.

## Flash storage

Now, chose any analog source (temperature sensor, Photo Diode, function generator etc.) on any input channel and store the values in flash using what you learned in Lab 6 . After a specific number (that you select) of samples are stored, have your program output the values using the `printf` with the help of a `for` or `while` loop. Then take the values and plot them on a graph. You may want to store every 10th (or 20th or 50th etc.) sample in flash to be able to see the analog signal over a longer period of time.

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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