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A selection of recent scholarship on coevolutionary arms races:

Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant.

Hirokazu Toju, BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:273. 2009.

Co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts at the nestling stage.

Manuel Soler, Journal of Avian Biology,3:237-240. 2009.

Intersexual Arms Race? Genital Coevolution in Nephilid Spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae).

Who will win the game?

Australian crab spiders and honeybees are in a coevolutionary arms race . But which is ahead? And how will this dynamic be shifted in the future?

To understand what’s coming next, it is helpful to understand the underlying principals of this “arms race.” This term is used in describing genes that are co-evolving, such as an Australian crab spiders ability to anticipate a honeybee’s preference in flowers and a honeybees ability to identify crab spiders and avoid landing on the flowers they occupy. As these two species develop adaptations, they must then develop counter-adaptations as a result of the other species’ advances. This positive feedback resembles a military arms race. There are numerous examples of these arms races in evolution, and while many have asymmetrical selective pressures, like those acting on the Australian crab spiders and the honeybees, there are symmetrical selection processes as well.

Even though Australian crab spiders are masters of prey deception, making the flowers they sit upon look even more enticing to a bee than less dangerous pollinating sites, scientists hypothesize that they have relinquished the upper hand in the arms race (Heiling and Herberstein, 2004). As more honeybees are able to recognize and combat the Australian crab spiders’ trickery, they will be forced to try new tactics. One anticipated evolutionary response is that the Australian crab spiders will become increasingly less conspicuous to honeybees, which may occur even without becoming less conspicuous to the human eye. There is an increasing body of literature that explain how animals reinvent the common notion of camouflage, that is the their bodies match the colors or patterns of their backgrounds, to a newer definition that includes non-pattern matching body designs that creative disruptive coloration patterns that trick their prey in the same way. Therefore, concealment can occur even if the background is not matched (Stevens et. al, 2006). Or conversely, perhaps the Australian crab spiders might change the way they are ambushing their hymenopteran prey. Instead of pouncing from the petals of a flower, they could hide below the surface, waiting to ambush from their sheltered location. The Australian crab spiders have countless evolutionary paths that they could take, although they must expect the honeybees to be simultaneously fighting back, looking to preserve and advance themselves at the same time and only time will tell how the Australian crab spider responds to these evolutionary pressures.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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