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A selection of recent scholarship on coevolutionary arms races:

Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant.

Hirokazu Toju, BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:273. 2009.

Co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts at the nestling stage.

Manuel Soler, Journal of Avian Biology,3:237-240. 2009.

Intersexual Arms Race? Genital Coevolution in Nephilid Spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae).

Who will win the game?

Australian crab spiders and honeybees are in a coevolutionary arms race . But which is ahead? And how will this dynamic be shifted in the future?

To understand what’s coming next, it is helpful to understand the underlying principals of this “arms race.” This term is used in describing genes that are co-evolving, such as an Australian crab spiders ability to anticipate a honeybee’s preference in flowers and a honeybees ability to identify crab spiders and avoid landing on the flowers they occupy. As these two species develop adaptations, they must then develop counter-adaptations as a result of the other species’ advances. This positive feedback resembles a military arms race. There are numerous examples of these arms races in evolution, and while many have asymmetrical selective pressures, like those acting on the Australian crab spiders and the honeybees, there are symmetrical selection processes as well.

Even though Australian crab spiders are masters of prey deception, making the flowers they sit upon look even more enticing to a bee than less dangerous pollinating sites, scientists hypothesize that they have relinquished the upper hand in the arms race (Heiling and Herberstein, 2004). As more honeybees are able to recognize and combat the Australian crab spiders’ trickery, they will be forced to try new tactics. One anticipated evolutionary response is that the Australian crab spiders will become increasingly less conspicuous to honeybees, which may occur even without becoming less conspicuous to the human eye. There is an increasing body of literature that explain how animals reinvent the common notion of camouflage, that is the their bodies match the colors or patterns of their backgrounds, to a newer definition that includes non-pattern matching body designs that creative disruptive coloration patterns that trick their prey in the same way. Therefore, concealment can occur even if the background is not matched (Stevens et. al, 2006). Or conversely, perhaps the Australian crab spiders might change the way they are ambushing their hymenopteran prey. Instead of pouncing from the petals of a flower, they could hide below the surface, waiting to ambush from their sheltered location. The Australian crab spiders have countless evolutionary paths that they could take, although they must expect the honeybees to be simultaneously fighting back, looking to preserve and advance themselves at the same time and only time will tell how the Australian crab spider responds to these evolutionary pressures.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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