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In a study performed by Astrid Heiling et. al in 2005, yellow spiders were overwhelmingly found on yellow plants (93.7%, N=16), while white spiders were found on primarily white plants (69%), but also on yellow plants of the same species (31%, N=71). In order to test this pattern of distribution, the researchers conducted a choice experiment where it was found that spiders actively choose flowers, as opposed to just settling on what is available. They found that spider preference was due to reflectance properties of flowers. So why do yellow spiders overwhelming prefer yellow flowers, and white spiders have less of a preference? The researchers did further analysis of spider and flower coloration and by looking at reflectance and contrast found that while the white spider on white plant combination was visible by bees, the yellow on yellow pairing of the two species yielded a higher contrast. In fact, the yellow spider on a yellow plant combination yielded higher UV contrast than a yellow spider on a white flower! The combination of yellow spiders on yellow flowers and white spiders on either color of flowers are attractive to honeybees and correspond to the combinations that spiders choose most frequently. This shows that spiders are actively seeking to contrast highly with their background on the basis of perceived honeybee attraction (Heiling et. al, 2005).

Table 1. Overview of the color contrasts between white and yellow T. spectabilis and white and yellow C. frutescens , and the visibility of this contrast by honeybees. Modified from Heiling et. al, 2005.

Spider/flower combinations Color contrast
Yellow/yellow Detectable (very high)
Yellow/white Detectable (high)
White/yellow Detectable (very high)
White/white Detectable (high)

Beyond picking the right flower in comparison to their body to create a desired level of contrast, spiders can manipulate other variables, such as their position on a given flower, to attract their hymenopteran prey. In another experiment performed by Heiling et. al, researchers placed spiders on both the ligulate florets and the center of daisies to see how honeybees would respond. Expecting that spiders positioned naturally on the petals would deceive honeybees while those placed atypically in the center of the flowers would repel the prey, researchers found their predictions to be supported. Researchers hypothesized that the honeybees may have been less attractive to daisies with spiders over the center because it would make it more difficult for spiders to access their reward (i.e. nectar). Another hypothesis was that the spider-covered centers had inflorescences that did not visually resemble natural daisies, hence the rejection by honeybees. What was evident, however, is that deception by spiders and attractiveness to honeybees was greatest when spiders were placed on the petals, a behavior that spiders exhibit in nature. In this careful choice, spiders are able to position themselves to influence the behavior of their hymenopteran prey (Heiling et. al, 2006). This adds to a bevy of evidence that confirms that spiders act in a way that maximize their attractiveness to prey.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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