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Honeybees prefer UV-blue and blue light, which they associate with high nectar. Green receptors are primarily used for the detection of motion, which is particularly helpful when bees are around or upon leaves. Briscoe and Chittka, 2001.

So it has been established that flowers look even more delectable to honeybees with an Australian crab spider sitting on top. But as aforementioned, Australian crab spiders cannot simply guess which flower is most attractive to a bee if they wish to have the most hunting success. They need to anticipate honeybee desires. This adds a twist to this predator/prey dynamic. Non-random selection of flowers is an evolved trait; however, just as Australian crab spiders are evolving to become better predators by anticipating honeybee preferences, honeybees are becoming smarter prey, learning to avoid crab spiders (Heiling and Herberstein, 2004) as described in the “Predator and Prey Coevolution” insert on the next page.

Predator and Prey Coevolution

Australian crab spiders ambush the hymenopteran prey available to them on their continent, including native honeybees to Australia and an introduced “naive” European honeybee species. In a study performed by A. M. Heiling and M. E. Herberstein, native and naive honeybees were watched as they approached flowers with or without spiders. While both species were attracted to the flower with spiders occupying a petal, only the naive bees frequently landed on these flowers. The native species has coevolved with the Australian crab spiders and therefore has learned to avoid landing on spider-occupied plants.

The results of this study indicate that native pollinators, the Australian bees, currently have the upper hand in the coevolutionary arms race. The authors of the paper expect that the crab spiders will counter this advantage by either reducing conspicuousness or exploiting a different sensory modality to attract native prey. (Heiling and Herberstein, 2004)

Australian native bee .

Photo credit: Louise Docker

Apis mellifera. Photo credit: Scott Bauer, USDA/ARS

The aforementioned studies that confirmed that Australian crab spiders use olfactory signals, visual cues, and UV-contrast imply that spiders make a choice about where they want to sit. The ability to process these signals, especially those being sent by floral species to their pollinators, is an evolved exploitation. But beyond intercepting signals meant for their prey, Australian crab spiders can manipulate themselves in a way that makes them even more adept at trapping their meals.

Thomisus spectabilis have the ability to change their body color from white to yellow over the course of several days. Incredibly, these spiders choose what color they want their bodies to be depending on the color of the flower on which they are sitting! This implies that they have knowledge of their own body color and are able to discern the colors of their surroundings. Australian crab spiders use their body and the UV-contrast it provides in comparison to the petal on which it is sitting to send a signal to a receiver, the honeybee. Therefore, in changing their body color in relation to the flower, they are using a behavioral means to exploit the signal for their greatest hunting success.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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