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The far east

Back to The Far East: 600 to 501 B.C.

China and manchuria. (continued chou dynasty until 403 b.c.)(the fourth great center of civilization)

The early century was the productive time of K'ung Ch'iu, known to us as "Confucius"

"Confucius" is the Latinized version of K'ung fu-tzu, the latter word being a superlative variation of "tzu", meaning "master", - thus "Master K'ung". (Ref. 101 )
and one of the great philosophers of all time. He taught no system of philosophy, merely how to think. He was essentially an agnostic, but made a heroic effort to make men decent. The rules of propriety and ways of living which he laid down in his five "Ching" or Canonical Books were, however, a sort of strait-jacket preventing change in the centuries to come. His was a prim and Puritanical way, without any place for pleasure and little for friendship and love. Nobility was a matter of education and conduct. Confucian gentle- men ruled China for over two millennia and through most of that time gave a remarkable stability and coherence to Chinese culture and politics.

Another philosopher, Mo Ti, appeared in the last half of the century, teaching an opposite doctrine of universal love and peace. Although China had known and used iron for some purposes for centuries, only in this century can it be said that the country really entered the Iron Age, at approximately the same time as Scandinavia, Britain and Ireland.

During this century the political climate of China changed. The state of Chin became weak and was divided, leaving Ch'in, Ch'i and Ch'u as the dominant powers nominally under the Chou Dynasty. Warfare became less gentlemanly and states now went to serious battle, with the period beginning in 403 B.C. thereinafter called the "Warring States era". The crossbow and iron weapons were introduced and added to the deadliness of war. Cast metal coins came into use not later than this century. (Ref. 101 )

In Chinese medical diagnosis, the feeling of the pulse has always been of primary importance and they have felt that interpretations of this could reflect the condition of each internal organ. A pulse chart was originally written in this or the preceding century by Pien Ch'iao. Exercise, massage and complex combinations of food to get proper relation of yin and yang were as much a part of treatment as medicines, although there were eventually some two thousand items in their pharmacopoeia. (Ref. 125 )


At about 500 B.C. the southern aborigines of Japan began to be replaced by the Mongolian type of people associated with modern day Japan. Traces of the southern aborigines' curly hair, gray eyes, brown or even red beards, may still be found in upland valleys, but their chief contributions to modern Japan was their language. The newcomer Mongolians apparently just drifted in by raft, canoe or boat and each group learned to speak the existing native dialects, while they gradually brought in improved stone techniques, thatched roofs, potters' wheels

The British Museum Guide (Ref. 19 ) states that the Mongolians did not introduce the potters' wheel into Japan until about 300 B.C.).
and new agricultural ideas. Such arts seem to have allowed the newcomers to survive and multiply to the extent that they could push the aborigines back into the hills. (Ref. 12 )


Continuation of Neolithic societies.

Southeast asia

Continuing the centuries-long migrations from the north, some people settled in Vietnam and Cambodia, becoming the Chams and Khmers; some in Burma and east Thailand becoming the Pyus and Mons; some in the long peninsula becoming the Malays. Others took to the sea, spreading throughout Indonesia and eventually Melanesia. The Bronze Age began here about 500 B.C. with some evidence of the use of iron in central Siam (Thailand). We have noted before that there may have been bronze in Thailand three millennia previously and we must assume that the Siamese were far more advanced in metallurgy than their neighbors. (Ref. 8 ) Metal was used widely in the Philippines by 500 B.C. and there was a spread of agriculture, involving rice and millet. (Ref. 153 )

Forward to The Far East: 400 to 301 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
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what school?
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anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
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Akash Reply
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characteristics of micro business
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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