# 6.4 Colligative properties  (Page 4/30)

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The extent to which the vapor pressure of a solvent is lowered and the boiling point is elevated depends on the total number of solute particles present in a given amount of solvent, not on the mass or size or chemical identities of the particles. A 1 m aqueous solution of sucrose (342 g/mol) and a 1 m aqueous solution of ethylene glycol (62 g/mol) will exhibit the same boiling point because each solution has one mole of solute particles (molecules) per kilogram of solvent.

## Calculating the boiling point of a solution

What is the boiling point of a 0.33 m solution of a nonvolatile solute in benzene?

## Solution

Use the equation relating boiling point elevation to solute molality to solve this problem in two steps.

1. Calculate the change in boiling point.
$\text{Δ}{T}_{\text{b}}={K}_{\text{b}}m=2.53\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{m}^{-1}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}0.33\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}m=0.83\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$
2. Add the boiling point elevation to the pure solvent’s boiling point.
$\text{Boiling temperature}=80.1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}+0.83\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}=80.9\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°}\text{C}$

What is the boiling point of the antifreeze described in [link] ?

109.2 °C

## The boiling point of an iodine solution

Find the boiling point of a solution of 92.1 g of iodine, I 2 , in 800.0 g of chloroform, CHCl 3 , assuming that the iodine is nonvolatile and that the solution is ideal.

## Solution

We can solve this problem using four steps.

1. Convert from grams to moles of I 2 using the molar mass of I 2 in the unit conversion factor.
Result: 0.363 mol
2. Determine the molality of the solution from the number of moles of solute and the mass of solvent, in kilograms.
Result: 0.454 m
3. Use the direct proportionality between the change in boiling point and molal concentration to determine how much the boiling point changes.
Result: 1.65 °C
4. Determine the new boiling point from the boiling point of the pure solvent and the change.
Result: 62.91 °C
Check each result as a self-assessment.

What is the boiling point of a solution of 1.0 g of glycerin, C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 , in 47.8 g of water? Assume an ideal solution.

100.12 °C

## Distillation of solutions

Distillation is a technique for separating the components of mixtures that is widely applied in both in the laboratory and in industrial settings. It is used to refine petroleum, to isolate fermentation products, and to purify water. This separation technique involves the controlled heating of a sample mixture to selectively vaporize, condense, and collect one or more components of interest. A typical apparatus for laboratory-scale distillations is shown in [link] .

Oil refineries use large-scale fractional distillation to separate the components of crude oil. The crude oil is heated to high temperatures at the base of a tall fractionating column , vaporizing many of the components that rise within the column. As vaporized components reach adequately cool zones during their ascent, they condense and are collected. The collected liquids are simpler mixtures of hydrocarbons and other petroleum compounds that are of appropriate composition for various applications (e.g., diesel fuel, kerosene, gasoline), as depicted in [link] .

what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
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Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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