<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Joint time-frequency analysis

Short time fourier transform

After our system has isolated the whistle sound, it is input to a continuously running analysis algorithm based on the result of a Short-Time Fourier Transform. While the traditional Fourier transforms do not maintain a sense of time, the STFT allows for joint time-frequency analysis. The formula for the STFT is:

STFT { x [ n ] } = X ( m , w ) = n =-∞ x [ n ] w [ n m ] e jwn size 12{ ital "STFT" lbrace x \[ n \] rbrace =X \( m,w \) = Sum cSub { size 8{n"=-¥"} } cSup { size 8{¥} } {x \[ n \] w \[ n-m \]e rSup { size 8{-jwn} } } } {}

Individual sections of the signal are windowed and their FFT is taken. The result of this operation is a two dimensional function in terms of the offset from zero (“time”) and the frequency content of the signal. According to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, however, we cannot have an arbitrary amount of resolution in both the time and frequency domains. For our application, we are only interested in detecting trends in the frequency with highest power, so time resolution is less important.

Spectrogram

Squaring the magnitude of the STFT results in a 3-D function is known as a spectrogram. The spectrogram of a whistle whose pitch goes from low to high looks like this.

Whistle spectrogram

This is a whistle of increasing frequency. Each slice of the spectrogram is an FFT of a certain windowed chunk of the signal. This embeds a sense of time in the spectrogram.

Notice that there is a dominant power (dark red) that shows a very clear upward trend over time. Each slice of the frequency axis at a particular time corresponds to a single chunk of the signals’FFTs. The dark red corresponds to the maximum of one of these FFTs, and as time passes (in the positive vertical direction), we see the frequency of highest power increases. Below is a graph of three of these component FFTs, illustrating how the peak frequency increases across time. Since pitch and frequency are essentially synonymous, we can determine what kind of whistle is input by looking at trends in the frequency with the dominant power.

Power vs. frequency for 3 spectrogram components

Here are 3 of the FFTs that comprise the spectrogram above. The frequency of maximum power is increasing.

With the dominant frequency for any given windowed input now known, our system then takes the discrete-time derivative of that frequency over the window. Calculus tells us that the derivative of a function at a point is positive for increasing functions and negative for decreasing functions. By continuously taking derivatives of these windows our system can track the basic shape of the spectrogram.

Analysis using the stft

Our analysis algorithm keeps a running buffer of the signs of these discrete-time derivatives. It then takes the magnitude signs inside the buffer. If the buffer encounters a number of continuous signs above or below a certain threshold, either positive or negative, it concludes that the input is a whistle with increasing or decreasing pitch, respectively. Finding the optimal threshold value is mostly trial and error; we looked at recordings of sine waves with constant frequencies and white noise in order to determine a reasonable upper bound for the area under the derivative curve.

There is a tradeoff between the size of the buffer and the quality of the analysis. Given that a whistle may last up to three seconds, it’s clear that the buffer need not contain that many samples in order to find and characterize the whistle. But on the same token, too few samples will result in an unusual number of false positives and change the song without any user interaction. And while this is not necessarily complex math, doing it quickly and continuously requires the window be as small as possible.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play




Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2007. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10503/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Elec 301 projects fall 2007' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask