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It is a significant concept in signal processing that there is more than one way to express the information in a given signal. One way is by defining the signal in terms of the value it has at any given time $n$, thus the notation $x[n]$. But is also possible to express a signal in terms of how it is be a combination of signals from a particular signal set. We could express the information in the signal by noting how much of each signal in the signal set contributes in the combination.

Definition of the dtft

The discrete-time Fourier transform , or DTFT, is a common way to express infinite-length discrete-time signals in another way. As noted above, the signal $x[n]$ can be understood as an entity as having a particular value for every time $n$ in the range $-\infty\lt n\lt \infty$. But it also can be understood in this way:$x[n]=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int\limits_{-\pi}^{\pi}X(\omega)e^{-j\omega n}d\omega$$x[n]$ is expressed in terms of how much of each signal $e^{-j\omega n}$ goes in to the integral which composes it. The weighting of each signal is according to the function $X(\omega)$. The values of that function are found according to this formula:$X(\omega)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n]\, e^{-j \omega n}$This formula for $X(\omega)$ is known as the DTFT of $x[n]$, while that first integral formula is known as the inverse DTFT.

Interpretations of the dtft

We have given above the formulas for the DTFT and the inverse DTFT: --$X(\omega)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n]\, e^{-j \omega n}$ --$x[n]=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int\limits_{-\pi}^{\pi}X(\omega)e^{-j\omega n}d\omega$ But what do these formulas mean? There are a few ways of understanding them. One is to say that the two formulas are expressing the same entity, but in different domains: $x[n]$ is the time-domain representation of the signal, whereas $X(\omega)$ is the frequency-domain representation of it. In that sense, it is like two different language translations of the same book (this analogy is not perfect, for translations are not exactly one-to-one; there are many English-language translations of the Spanish book Don Quixote, but there is only one frequency-domain representation $X(\omega)$ for a time-domain signal $x[n]$).A second way to understand the DTFT is in terms of the concepts of analysis and synthesis. The DTFT formula gives us a frequency analysis of the signal $x[n]$. The signal $X(\omega)$ analyzes $x[n]$ from a different point of view; it tells us the frequency content of $x[n]$, whether it is composed of only low frequencies, or just high ones, or whatever the case may be. This is because every value of $X(\omega)$ is simply the inner product of $x[n]$ with $e^{j\omega n}$; it tells us the "strength" of $e^{j\omega n}$ in the signal $x[n]$. The inverse DTFT then synthesizes, or composes, $x[n]$ based upon its weighting at each different frequency.

Relationship between the dtft and the dft

The DTFT is not the only Fourier transform for discrete-time signals. While the DTFT operates on infinite-length signals, the DFT (discrete Fourier transform) is a tool for frequency analysis of finite-length signals. A finite-length signal (say, of length $N$) $x[n]$ has an $N$ length frequency representation $X[k]$, according to these formulas: $X[k]=\sum\limits_{n=0}^{N-1}x[n]e^{-j\frac{2\pi}{N}kn}$$x[n]=\frac{1}{N}\sum\limits_{k=0}^{N-1}X[k]e^{j\frac{2\pi}{N}kn}$ As $x[n]$ and $X[k]$ are N-periodic, we can also represent them in this way, shifted about $n$ and $k$ at the origin:$X[k]=\sum\limits_{n=-\frac{N}{2}}^{\frac{N}{2}-1}x[n]e^{-j\frac{2\pi}{N}kn}$ $x[n]=\frac{1}{N}\sum\limits_{k=-\frac{N}{2}}^{\frac{N}{2}-1}X[k]e^{j\frac{2\pi}{N}kn}$We can develop the DTFT by seeing what happens to the DFT as $N$ gets larger and larger. As $N$ approaches $\infty$, so also do $n$ and $k$ run from $\infty$ to $\infty$. Consider also what happens to $e^{-j\frac{2\pi}{N}kn}$. As $N$ gets infinitely large, the exponent term $\frac{2\pi}{N}k$ becomes a continuous value, running from $-\pi$ to $\pi$, and we can call that value $\omega$. We have then that the DFT sum becomes: $X(\omega)=\sum\limits_{n=-\infty}^{\infty}x[n]e^{-j\omega n}$ which is the definition of the DTFT.Similarly, on the synthesis side of the transform, the DFT "sum" will not run over a discrete number of values $k$, but rather become an integral over the continuous variable $\omega$: $x[n]=\int\limits_{-\pi}^{\pi}X(\omega)e^{j\omega n}\frac{d\omega}{2\pi}$ which is our inverse DTFT.Graphically, we can see how increasing the length of a signal by adding more and more zeros on either side of it results in the signal's DFT (which is expressed in terms of $k$) appearing to be more and more like a continuous function (expressed in terms of $\omega$):

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Discrete-time signals and systems. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11868/1.2
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