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Introduction

Metal compounds and complexes are invaluable precursors for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal and non-metal thin films. In general, the precursor compounds are chosen on the basis of their relative volatility and their ability to decompose to the desired material under a suitable temperature regime. Unfortunately, many readily obtainable (commercially available) compounds are not of sufficient volatility to make them suitable for CVD applications. Thus, a prediction of the volatility of a metal-organic compounds as a function of its ligand identity and molecular structure would be desirable in order to determine the suitability of such compounds as CVD precursors. Equally important would be a method to determine the vapor pressure of a potential CVD precursor as well as its optimum temperature of sublimation.

It has been observed that for organic compounds it was determined that a rough proportionality exists between a compound’s melting point and sublimation enthalpy; however, significant deviation is observed for inorganic compounds.

Enthalpies of sublimation for metal-organic compounds have been previously determined through a variety of methods, most commonly from vapor pressure measurements using complex experimental systems such as Knudsen effusion, temperature drop microcalorimetry and, more recently, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). However, the measured values are highly dependent on the experimental procedure utilized. For example, the reported sublimation enthalpy of Al(acac) 3 ( [link] a, where M = Al, n = 3) varies from 47.3 to 126 kJ/mol.

Structure of a typical metal β-diketonate complex. (a) acetylacetonate (acac); (b) trifluoro acetylacetonate (tfac), and (c) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac).

Thermogravimetric analysis offers a simple and reproducible method for the determination of the vapor pressure of a potential CVD precursor as well as its enthalpy of sublimation.

Determination of sublimation enthalpy

The enthalpy of sublimation is a quantitative measure of the volatility of a particular solid. This information is useful when considering the feasibility of a particular precursor for CVD applications. An ideal sublimation process involves no compound decomposition and only results in a solid-gas phase change, i.e., [link] .

Since phase changes are thermodynamic processes following zero-order kinetics, the evaporation rate or rate of mass loss by sublimation (m sub ), at a constant temperature (T), is constant at a given temperature, [link] . Therefore, the m sub values may be directly determined from the linear mass loss of the TGA data in isothermal regions.

The thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of the compound under study is performed to determine the temperature of sublimation and thermal events such as melting. [link] shows a typical TG/DTA plot for a gallium chalcogenide cubane compound ( [link] ).

A typical thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) analysis of [(EtMe 2 C)GaSe] 4 , whose structure is shown in [link] . Adapted from E. G. Gillan, S. G. Bott, and A. R. Barron, Chem. Mater., 1997, 9 , 3, 796.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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