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Bioinformatics PFUG

Lauren Kirton

July 2010

Special thanks to:

This Connexions module describes work conducted as part of Rice University's VIGRE program, supported by National Science Foundationgrant DMS–0739420.

Dr. Rudy Guerra

Dr. Sendurai Mani

Joe Taube


One of the most prominent areas of research today is that of cancerstudy. There exists thousands of studies relating to the causes and cures of cancer. Molecularbiologists at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center research lab believe they have found a breakthrough in the cause of metastatic cancer. This breakthroughpotentially answers the most important question of cancer research-how can we prevent cancer? The research at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center involves a focuson the genetic level, with biological functions discovered only in the past few years. More information can be found in Ref.  [link] .

Introduction to cancer

Over 80% of reported cancer cases are carcinomas. A carcinoma is an invasive malignant tumor composed of transformed, mutatedepithelial cells.

Example of Normal Cells

Normal epithelial cells line the cavities and surfaces of the structures that make up the body. These cells are strict and rigid instructure, held tight together by intercellular junctions. Epithelial cells are specialized, meaning they are made for a specific purpose or structure (i.e.skin tissue, organ tissue, etc.).

A carcinoma forms when mutated epithelial cells begin to form a tumor in a localized region. There are five stages of carcinoma,describing the extent or severity of an individual's cancer. Common elements of staging systems include location of the primary tumor, tumor size and number oftumors, lymph node involvement, cell type and tumor grade, and presence of metastasis.

In higher stages of carcinoma, a higher chance of metastasis that is likely to occur. Carcinoma is very treatable or curable.Carcinoma tumors can be removed with surgery, or killed with radiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.

Example of Mesenchymal Cells

Fatality associated with cancer stems from metastasis of the cancer. Metastatic cancer refers to cancer cells that spread from aprimary epithelial based tumor to another location in the body where these cells form a metastatic based tumor. These cells, known as mesenchymal cells, possessstem cell like properties and can differentiate into a variety of cell types. These cells are spindly-like and very spread apart, allowing for easy transferthroughout the body. Mesenchymal cells have long proliferation and are unspecialized, making the spread of cancer elsewhere in the body fairlyeasy.

Epithelial mesenchymal transition (emt)

Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a process of biological cells in which epithelial cells express losses of cell adhesion,repression of E-cadherin expression and allow the cells increased mobility. There are several transcription factors that induced EMT. Transcriptionalfactors Snail and Slug are repressors of E-cadherin, and the expression of these two transcription factors induces EMT. The transcription factors S, T, G and B are known to induce EMT. When these four transcriptionfactors undergo EMT, expression of FOXC2 is observed, an important factor known to induce EMT and regulate metastasis.The process of EMT begins when epithelial cells in a high stage carcinoma undergo some process that mutate these cells into mesenchymal cells. Thesemesenchymal cells then enter the blood stream through capillaries that cover the tumor and travel throughout the body. These cells can then exit the bloodstreamand return to the carcinogenic epithelial cells and begin to form a second tumor elsewhere in the body.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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