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Bioinformatics PFUG

Lauren Kirton

July 2010

Special thanks to:

This Connexions module describes work conducted as part of Rice University's VIGRE program, supported by National Science Foundationgrant DMS–0739420.

Dr. Rudy Guerra

Dr. Sendurai Mani

Joe Taube


One of the most prominent areas of research today is that of cancerstudy. There exists thousands of studies relating to the causes and cures of cancer. Molecularbiologists at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center research lab believe they have found a breakthrough in the cause of metastatic cancer. This breakthroughpotentially answers the most important question of cancer research-how can we prevent cancer? The research at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center involves a focuson the genetic level, with biological functions discovered only in the past few years. More information can be found in Ref.  [link] .

Introduction to cancer

Over 80% of reported cancer cases are carcinomas. A carcinoma is an invasive malignant tumor composed of transformed, mutatedepithelial cells.

Example of Normal Cells

Normal epithelial cells line the cavities and surfaces of the structures that make up the body. These cells are strict and rigid instructure, held tight together by intercellular junctions. Epithelial cells are specialized, meaning they are made for a specific purpose or structure (i.e.skin tissue, organ tissue, etc.).

A carcinoma forms when mutated epithelial cells begin to form a tumor in a localized region. There are five stages of carcinoma,describing the extent or severity of an individual's cancer. Common elements of staging systems include location of the primary tumor, tumor size and number oftumors, lymph node involvement, cell type and tumor grade, and presence of metastasis.

In higher stages of carcinoma, a higher chance of metastasis that is likely to occur. Carcinoma is very treatable or curable.Carcinoma tumors can be removed with surgery, or killed with radiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.

Example of Mesenchymal Cells

Fatality associated with cancer stems from metastasis of the cancer. Metastatic cancer refers to cancer cells that spread from aprimary epithelial based tumor to another location in the body where these cells form a metastatic based tumor. These cells, known as mesenchymal cells, possessstem cell like properties and can differentiate into a variety of cell types. These cells are spindly-like and very spread apart, allowing for easy transferthroughout the body. Mesenchymal cells have long proliferation and are unspecialized, making the spread of cancer elsewhere in the body fairlyeasy.

Epithelial mesenchymal transition (emt)

Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a process of biological cells in which epithelial cells express losses of cell adhesion,repression of E-cadherin expression and allow the cells increased mobility. There are several transcription factors that induced EMT. Transcriptionalfactors Snail and Slug are repressors of E-cadherin, and the expression of these two transcription factors induces EMT. The transcription factors S, T, G and B are known to induce EMT. When these four transcriptionfactors undergo EMT, expression of FOXC2 is observed, an important factor known to induce EMT and regulate metastasis.The process of EMT begins when epithelial cells in a high stage carcinoma undergo some process that mutate these cells into mesenchymal cells. Thesemesenchymal cells then enter the blood stream through capillaries that cover the tumor and travel throughout the body. These cells can then exit the bloodstreamand return to the carcinogenic epithelial cells and begin to form a second tumor elsewhere in the body.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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