# 5.8 The particle-wave duality reviewed  (Page 3/3)

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## Problems&Exercises

Integrated Concepts

The 54.0-eV electron in [link] has a 0.167-nm wavelength. If such electrons are passed through a double slit and have their first maximum at an angle of $\text{25}\text{.}0º$ , what is the slit separation $d$ ?

0.395 nm

Integrated Concepts

An electron microscope produces electrons with a 2.00-pm wavelength. If these are passed through a 1.00-nm single slit, at what angle will the first diffraction minimum be found?

Integrated Concepts

A certain heat lamp emits 200 W of mostly IR radiation averaging 1500 nm in wavelength. (a) What is the average photon energy in joules? (b) How many of these photons are required to increase the temperature of a person’s shoulder by $2\text{.}0º\text{C}$ , assuming the affected mass is 4.0 kg with a specific heat of $0\text{.83 kcal}\text{/kg}\cdot \text{ºC}$ . Also assume no other significant heat transfer. (c) How long does this take?

(a) $1.3×{\text{10}}^{-\text{19}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

(b) $2\text{.}1×{\text{10}}^{\text{23}}$

(c) $1\text{.}4×{\text{10}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{s}$

Integrated Concepts

On its high power setting, a microwave oven produces 900 W of 2560 MHz microwaves. (a) How many photons per second is this? (b) How many photons are required to increase the temperature of a 0.500-kg mass of pasta by $\text{45}\text{.}0º\text{C}$ , assuming a specific heat of $0\text{.}\text{900 kcal/kg}\cdot \text{ºC}$ ? Neglect all other heat transfer. (c) How long must the microwave operator wait for their pasta to be ready?

Integrated Concepts

(a) Calculate the amount of microwave energy in joules needed to raise the temperature of 1.00 kg of soup from $\text{20}\text{.}0º\text{C}$ to $\text{100}\text{ºC}$ . (b) What is the total momentum of all the microwave photons it takes to do this? (c) Calculate the velocity of a 1.00-kg mass with the same momentum. (d) What is the kinetic energy of this mass?

(a) $3\text{.}\text{35}×{\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

(b) $1\text{.}\text{12}×{\text{10}}^{\text{–3}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\cdot \text{m/s}$

(c) $1\text{.}\text{12}×{\text{10}}^{\text{–3}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$

(d) $6.23×{\text{10}}^{\text{–7}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$

Integrated Concepts

(a) What is $\gamma$ for an electron emerging from the Stanford Linear Accelerator with a total energy of 50.0 GeV? (b) Find its momentum. (c) What is the electron’s wavelength?

Integrated Concepts

(a) What is $\gamma$ for a proton having an energy of 1.00 TeV, produced by the Fermilab accelerator? (b) Find its momentum. (c) What is the proton’s wavelength?

(a) $1\text{.}\text{06}×{\text{10}}^{3}$

(b) $5\text{.}\text{33}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{16}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\cdot \text{m/s}$

(c) $1\text{.}\text{24}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{18}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$

Integrated Concepts

An electron microscope passes 1.00-pm-wavelength electrons through a circular aperture $2\text{.}\text{00 μm}$ in diameter. What is the angle between two just-resolvable point sources for this microscope?

Integrated Concepts

(a) Calculate the velocity of electrons that form the same pattern as 450-nm light when passed through a double slit. (b) Calculate the kinetic energy of each and compare them. (c) Would either be easier to generate than the other? Explain.

(a) $1\text{.}\text{62}×{\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m/s}$

(b) $4\text{.}\text{42}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{19}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ for photon, $1\text{.}\text{19}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{24}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$ for electron, photon energy is $3\text{.}\text{71}×{\text{10}}^{5}$ times greater

(c) The light is easier to make because 450-nm light is blue light and therefore easy to make. Creating electrons with $7.43 \mu eV$ of energy would not be difficult, but would require a vacuum.

Integrated Concepts

(a) What is the separation between double slits that produces a second-order minimum at $\text{45}\text{.}0º$ for 650-nm light? (b) What slit separation is needed to produce the same pattern for 1.00-keV protons.

(a) $2\text{.}\text{30}×{\text{10}}^{-6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$

(b) $3\text{.}\text{20}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{12}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$

Integrated Concepts

A laser with a power output of 2.00 mW at a wavelength of 400 nm is projected onto calcium metal. (a) How many electrons per second are ejected? (b) What power is carried away by the electrons, given that the binding energy is 2.71 eV? (c) Calculate the current of ejected electrons. (d) If the photoelectric material is electrically insulated and acts like a 2.00-pF capacitor, how long will current flow before the capacitor voltage stops it?

Integrated Concepts

One problem with x rays is that they are not sensed. Calculate the temperature increase of a researcher exposed in a few seconds to a nearly fatal accidental dose of x rays under the following conditions. The energy of the x-ray photons is 200 keV, and $4\text{.}\text{00}×{\text{10}}^{\text{13}}$ of them are absorbed per kilogram of tissue, the specific heat of which is $0\text{.}\text{830 kcal/kg}\cdot \text{ºC}$ . (Note that medical diagnostic x-ray machines cannot produce an intensity this great.)

$3\text{.}\text{69}×{\text{10}}^{-4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{ºC}$

Integrated Concepts

A 1.00-fm photon has a wavelength short enough to detect some information about nuclei. (a) What is the photon momentum? (b) What is its energy in joules and MeV? (c) What is the (relativistic) velocity of an electron with the same momentum? (d) Calculate the electron’s kinetic energy.

Integrated Concepts

The momentum of light is exactly reversed when reflected straight back from a mirror, assuming negligible recoil of the mirror. Thus the change in momentum is twice the photon momentum. Suppose light of intensity $1\text{.}{\text{00 kW/m}}^{2}$ reflects from a mirror of area $2\text{.}{\text{00 m}}^{2}$ . (a) Calculate the energy reflected in 1.00 s. (b) What is the momentum imparted to the mirror? (c) Using the most general form of Newton’s second law, what is the force on the mirror? (d) Does the assumption of no mirror recoil seem reasonable?

(a) 2.00 kJ

(b) $1\text{.}\text{33}×{\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\cdot \text{m/s}$

(c) $1\text{.}\text{33}×{\text{10}}^{-5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$

(d) yes

Integrated Concepts

Sunlight above the Earth’s atmosphere has an intensity of $1\text{.}\text{30}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{kW/m}}^{2}$ . If this is reflected straight back from a mirror that has only a small recoil, the light’s momentum is exactly reversed, giving the mirror twice the incident momentum. (a) Calculate the force per square meter of mirror. (b) Very low mass mirrors can be constructed in the near weightlessness of space, and attached to a spaceship to sail it. Once done, the average mass per square meter of the spaceship is 0.100 kg. Find the acceleration of the spaceship if all other forces are balanced. (c) How fast is it moving 24 hours later?

#### Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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