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A description of the Huffman source encoding algorithm.

One particular source coding algorithm is the Huffman encoding algorithm. It is a source coding algorithm which approaches, and sometimes achieves, Shannon's bound forsource compression. A brief discussion of the algorithm is also given in another module .

Huffman encoding algorithm

  • Sort source outputs in decreasing order of their probabilities
  • Merge the two least-probable outputs into a single output whose probability is the sum of the corresponding probabilities.
  • If the number of remaining outputs is more than 2, then go to step 1.
  • Arbitrarily assign 0 and 1 as codewords for the two remaining outputs.
  • If an output is the result of the merger of two outputs in a preceding step, append the current codeword with a 0 and a 1 toobtain the codeword the the preceding outputs and repeat step 5. If no output is preceded by another output in a preceding step, thenstop.

X A B C D with probabilities { 1 2 , 1 4 , 1 8 , 1 8 }

Average length 1 2 1 1 4 2 1 8 3 1 8 3 14 8 . As you may recall, the entropy of the source was also H X 14 8 . In this case, the Huffman code achieves the lower bound of 14 8 bits output .

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In general, we can define average code length as

x x X p X x x
where X is the set of possible values of x .

It is not very hard to show that

H X H X 1
For compressing single source output at a time, Huffman codes provide nearly optimum code lengths.

The drawbacks of Huffman coding

  • Codes are variable length.
  • The algorithm requires the knowledge of the probabilities, p X x for all x X .
Another powerful source coder that does not have the aboveshortcomings is Lempel and Ziv.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Information and signal theory. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2006 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10211/1.19
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