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Key concepts and summary

Calorimetry is used to measure the amount of thermal energy transferred in a chemical or physical process. This requires careful measurement of the temperature change that occurs during the process and the masses of the system and surroundings. These measured quantities are then used to compute the amount of heat produced or consumed in the process using known mathematical relations.

Calorimeters are designed to minimize energy exchange between the system being studied and its surroundings. They range from simple coffee cup calorimeters used by introductory chemistry students to sophisticated bomb calorimeters used to determine the energy content of food.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

A 500-mL bottle of water at room temperature and a 2-L bottle of water at the same temperature were placed in a refrigerator. After 30 minutes, the 500-mL bottle of water had cooled to the temperature of the refrigerator. An hour later, the 2-L of water had cooled to the same temperature. When asked which sample of water lost the most heat, one student replied that both bottles lost the same amount of heat because they started at the same temperature and finished at the same temperature. A second student thought that the 2-L bottle of water lost more heat because there was more water. A third student believed that the 500-mL bottle of water lost more heat because it cooled more quickly. A fourth student thought that it was not possible to tell because we do not know the initial temperature and the final temperature of the water. Indicate which of these answers is correct and describe the error in each of the other answers.

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Would the amount of heat measured for the reaction in [link] be greater, lesser, or remain the same if we used a calorimeter that was a poorer insulator than a coffee cup calorimeter? Explain your answer.

lesser; more heat would be lost to the coffee cup and the environment and so Δ T for the water would be lesser and the calculated q would be lesser

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Would the amount of heat absorbed by the dissolution in [link] appear greater, lesser, or remain the same if the experimenter used a calorimeter that was a poorer insulator than a coffee cup calorimeter? Explain your answer.

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Would the amount of heat absorbed by the dissolution in [link] appear greater, lesser, or remain the same if the heat capacity of the calorimeter were taken into account? Explain your answer.

greater, since taking the calorimeter’s heat capacity into account will compensate for the thermal energy transferred to the solution from the calorimeter; this approach includes the calorimeter itself, along with the solution, as “surroundings”: q rxn = −( q solution + q calorimeter ); since both q solution and q calorimeter are negative, including the latter term ( q rxn ) will yield a greater value for the heat of the dissolution

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How many milliliters of water at 23 °C with a density of 1.00 g/mL must be mixed with 180 mL (about 6 oz) of coffee at 95 °C so that the resulting combination will have a temperature of 60 °C? Assume that coffee and water have the same density and the same specific heat.

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Questions & Answers

what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
they deal With prices
define the elasticity
explain different types of elasticity
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
anything else?
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
I Mean on the same curve..
how can consumer surplus be calculated
How can we analyze the effect on demand or supply if multiple factors are changing at the same time—say price rises and income falls? 
Gabriel Reply
because of fall of income, less will be demanded and much will be supply as a result of price rises. Rise in price always motivate new supplier to enter into the system. But it only possible in the short run
yeah.. I think Ceteris Paribus is applied in this case
that is the law of Demand is Inversely related to the law of Supply... so that mean a positive change in demand may produce a negative return to supply I think.
what are the difference between Wants and Needs
Gabriel Reply
When the price is above the equilibrium, explain how market forces move the market price to equilibrium. Do the same when the price is below the equilibrium.
economic problems
yeah please Explain
I don't know this is my question
no it was a mistake...😂😂 can you explain how Wants and needs differs 😌
wants is what human desire but might not need them, human want are mostly articles of ostentatious while need is what human must get to live e.g inferior goods
what's equilibrium price
equilibrium prices is a situation whereby the price of goods supplied equates to the demand
this whereby the prices of quality demanded is equivalent to quality demanded
wants are numerous desire man that man can do without if not purchased e.g. cosmetic while need are desires that you cannot do without e.g. food
equilibrium price is that level of output were quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied
what are the importance of studying economics
Bherla Reply
To know if the country is growing or not through the country's GDP
to manage our resources
compare base years GDP and the current years GDP
To tell whether a country is growing there are many factors to be considered not necessarily only the GDP due to weaknesses of GDP approach
What is the law of demand
Yaw Reply
price increase demand decrease...price decrease demand increase
ıf the price increase the demand decrease and if the demand increase the price decrease
all other things being equal, an increase in demand causes a decrease in supply and vice versa
how is the economy of usa now
What is demand
jude Reply
Demand is the quantity of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to purchase at various prices over a given period of time.
Okay congratulations I'll join you guys later .
demand is the quantity and quality of goods and services a consumer is willingly and able to purchase at a particular price over a given period of time.
calculate elasticity of income exercises
If potatoes cost Jane $1 per kilogram and she has $5 that could possibly spend on potatoes or other items. If she feels that the first kilogram of potatoes is worth $1.50, the second kilogram is worth$1.14, the third is worth $1.05 and subsequent kilograms are worth $0.30, how many kilograms of potatoes will she purchase? What if she only had $2 to spend?
Susan Reply
cause of poverty in urban
DAVY Reply
QI: (A) Asume the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer: At a product price Of $56. will this firm produce in the short run? Why Why not? If it is preferable to produce, what will be the profit-maximizing Or loss-minimizing Output? Explain. What economic profit or loss will the
Falak Reply
how do you find theWhat are the wavelengths and energies per photon of two lines
caroline Reply
The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
ifunanya Reply
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Kyndall Reply
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Gabe Reply
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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