# 5.4 Continuous wavelet transform

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This module introduces continuous wavelet transform.

The STFT provided a means of (joint) time-frequency analysis with the property that spectral/temporal widths (or resolutions)were the same for all basis elements. Let's now take a closer look at the implications of uniform resolution.

Consider two signals composed of sinusoids with frequency 1 Hz and 1.001 Hz, respectively. It may be difficult to distinguishbetween these two signals in the presence of background noise unless many cycles are observed, implying the need for amany-second observation. Now consider two signals with pure frequencies of 1000 Hz and 1001 Hz-again, a 0.1%difference. Here it should be possible to distinguish the two signals in an interval of much less than one second. In otherwords, good frequency resolution requires longer observation times as frequency decreases. Thus, it might be more convenientto construct a basis whose elements have larger temporal width at low frequencies.

The previous example motivates a multi-resolution time-frequency tiling of the form ( [link] ):

The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) accomplishes the above multi-resolution tiling by time-scaling and time-shifting aprototype function $\psi (t)$ , often called the mother wavelet . The $a$ -scaled and $\tau$ -shifted basis elements is given by ${\psi }_{a,\tau }(t)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{\left|a\right|}}\psi (\frac{t-\tau }{a})$ where $(a\land \tau )\in \mathbb{R}$ $\int_{()} \,d t$ ψ t 0 ${C}_{\psi }=\int_{()} \,d \Omega$ ψ Ω 2 Ω The conditions above imply that $\psi (t)$ is bandpass and sufficiently smooth. Assuming that $(\psi (t))=1$ , the definition above ensures that $({\psi }_{a,\tau }(t))=1$ for all $a$ and $\tau$ . The CWT is then defined by the transform pair ${X}_{\mathrm{CWT}}(a, \tau )=\int_{()} \,d t$ x t ψ a , τ t $x(t)=\frac{1}{{C}_{\psi }}\int_{()} \,d a$ τ X CWT a τ ψ a , τ t a 2 In basis terms, the CWT says that a waveform can be decomposed into a collection of shifted and stretched versions of themother wavelet $\psi (t)$ . As such, it is usually said that wavelets perform a "time-scale" analysis rather than a time-frequency analysis.

The Morlet wavelet is a classic example of the CWT. It employs a windowed complex exponential as the motherwavelet: $\psi (t)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi }}e^{-(i{\Omega }_{0}t)}e^{-\left(\frac{t^{2}}{2}\right)}$ $\Psi (\Omega )=e^{-\left(\frac{(\Omega -{\Omega }_{0})^{2}}{2}\right)}$ where it is typical to select ${\Omega }_{0}=\pi \sqrt{\frac{2}{\lg 2}}$ . (See illustration .) While this wavelet does not exactly satisfy the conditions established earlier, since $\Psi (0)\approx 7E-7\neq 0$ , it can be corrected, though in practice the correction is negligible and usually ignored.

While the CWT discussed above is an interesting theoretical and pedagogical tool, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is muchmore practical. Before shifting our focus to the DWT, we take a step back and review some of the basic concepts from the branchof mathematics known as Hilbert Space theory ( Vector Space , Normed Vector Space , Inner Product Space , Hilbert Space , Projection Theorem ). These concepts will be essential in our development of the DWT.

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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