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Phet explorations: color vision

Make a whole rainbow by mixing red, green, and blue light. Change the wavelength of a monochromatic beam or filter white light. View the light as a solid beam, or see the individual photons.

Color Vision

Section summary

  • Photon energy is responsible for many characteristics of EM radiation, being particularly noticeable at high frequencies.
  • Photons have both wave and particle characteristics.

Conceptual questions

Why are UV, x rays, and γ size 12{γ} {} rays called ionizing radiation?

How can treating food with ionizing radiation help keep it from spoiling? UV is not very penetrating. What else could be used?

Some television tubes are CRTs. They use an approximately 30-kV accelerating potential to send electrons to the screen, where the electrons stimulate phosphors to emit the light that forms the pictures we watch. Would you expect x rays also to be created?

Tanning salons use “safe” UV with a longer wavelength than some of the UV in sunlight. This “safe” UV has enough photon energy to trigger the tanning mechanism. Is it likely to be able to cause cell damage and induce cancer with prolonged exposure?

Your pupils dilate when visible light intensity is reduced. Does wearing sunglasses that lack UV blockers increase or decrease the UV hazard to your eyes? Explain.

One could feel heat transfer in the form of infrared radiation from a large nuclear bomb detonated in the atmosphere 75 km from you. However, none of the profusely emitted x rays or γ size 12{γ} {} rays reaches you. Explain.

Can a single microwave photon cause cell damage? Explain.

In an x-ray tube, the maximum photon energy is given by hf = qV . size 12{ ital "hf"= ital "qV"} {} Would it be technically more correct to say hf = qV + BE, size 12{ ital "hf"= ital "qV"+"BE"} {} where BE is the binding energy of electrons in the target anode? Why isn’t the energy stated the latter way?

Problems&Exercises

What is the energy in joules and eV of a photon in a radio wave from an AM station that has a 1530-kHz broadcast frequency?

6.34 × 10 9 eV size 12{6 "." "34" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } " eV"} {} , 1.01 × 10 27 J size 12{6 "." "34" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } " eV"} {}

(a) Find the energy in joules and eV of photons in radio waves from an FM station that has a 90.0-MHz broadcast frequency. (b) What does this imply about the number of photons per second that the radio station must broadcast?

Calculate the frequency in hertz of a 1.00-MeV γ size 12{γ} {} -ray photon.

2 . 42 × 10 20 Hz size 12{2 "." "42" times "10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } " Hz"} {}

(a) What is the wavelength of a 1.00-eV photon? (b) Find its frequency in hertz. (c) Identify the type of EM radiation.

Do the unit conversions necessary to show that hc = 1240 eV nm, size 12{ ital "hc"="1240"" eV" cdot "nm"} {} as stated in the text.

hc = 6.62607 × 10 34 J s 2.99792 × 10 8 m/s 10 9 nm 1 m 1.00000 eV 1.60218 × 10 19 J = 1239.84 eV nm 1240 eV nm alignl { stack { size 12{ ital "hc"= left (6 "." "62607" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s right ) left (2 "." "99792" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `"m/s" right ) left ( { {"10" rSup { size 8{9} } `"nm"} over {1`m} } right ) left ( { {1 "." "00000"`"eV"} over {1 "." "60218" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `J} } right )} {} #="1239" "." "84 eV" cdot "nm" {} # approx "1240 eV" cdot "nm" {}} } {}

Confirm the statement in the text that the range of photon energies for visible light is 1.63 to 3.26 eV, given that the range of visible wavelengths is 380 to 760 nm.

(a) Calculate the energy in eV of an IR photon of frequency 2.00 × 10 13 Hz. size 12{2 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } " Hz"} {} (b) How many of these photons would need to be absorbed simultaneously by a tightly bound molecule to break it apart? (c) What is the energy in eV of a γ size 12{γ} {} ray of frequency 3 . 00 × 10 20 Hz? size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } " Hz"} {} (d) How many tightly bound molecules could a single such γ size 12{γ} {} ray break apart?

(a) 0.0829 eV

(b) 121

(c) 1.24 MeV

(d) 1 . 24 × 10 5 size 12{2 "." "24" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } } {}

Prove that, to three-digit accuracy, h = 4 . 14 × 10 15 eV s, size 12{h=4 "." "14" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } " eV" cdot s} {} as stated in the text.

(a) What is the maximum energy in eV of photons produced in a CRT using a 25.0-kV accelerating potential, such as a color TV? (b) What is their frequency?

(a) 25.0 × 10 3 eV size 12{" 25 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{3} } " eV"} {}

(b) 6 . 04 × 10 18 Hz size 12{" 6" "." "04 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{"18"} } " Hz"} {}

What is the accelerating voltage of an x-ray tube that produces x rays with a shortest wavelength of 0.0103 nm?

(a) What is the ratio of power outputs by two microwave ovens having frequencies of 950 and 2560 MHz, if they emit the same number of photons per second? (b) What is the ratio of photons per second if they have the same power output?

(a) 2.69

(b) 0.371

How many photons per second are emitted by the antenna of a microwave oven, if its power output is 1.00 kW at a frequency of 2560 MHz?

Some satellites use nuclear power. (a) If such a satellite emits a 1.00-W flux of γ size 12{γ} {} rays having an average energy of 0.500 MeV, how many are emitted per second? (b) These γ size 12{γ} {} rays affect other satellites. How far away must another satellite be to only receive one γ size 12{γ} {} ray per second per square meter?

(a) 1 . 25 × 10 13 photons/s size 12{" 1" "." "25 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } " photons/s"} {}

(b) 997 km

(a) If the power output of a 650-kHz radio station is 50.0 kW, how many photons per second are produced? (b) If the radio waves are broadcast uniformly in all directions, find the number of photons per second per square meter at a distance of 100 km. Assume no reflection from the ground or absorption by the air.

How many x-ray photons per second are created by an x-ray tube that produces a flux of x rays having a power of 1.00 W? Assume the average energy per photon is 75.0 keV.

8.33 × 10 13 photons/s size 12{" 8" "." "33 " times " 10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } " photons/s"} {}

(a) How far away must you be from a 650-kHz radio station with power 50.0 kW for there to be only one photon per second per square meter? Assume no reflections or absorption, as if you were in deep outer space. (b) Discuss the implications for detecting intelligent life in other solar systems by detecting their radio broadcasts.

Assuming that 10.0% of a 100-W light bulb’s energy output is in the visible range (typical for incandescent bulbs) with an average wavelength of 580 nm, and that the photons spread out uniformly and are not absorbed by the atmosphere, how far away would you be if 500 photons per second enter the 3.00-mm diameter pupil of your eye? (This number easily stimulates the retina.)

181 km

Construct Your Own Problem

Consider a laser pen. Construct a problem in which you calculate the number of photons per second emitted by the pen. Among the things to be considered are the laser pen’s wavelength and power output. Your instructor may also wish for you to determine the minimum diffraction spreading in the beam and the number of photons per square centimeter the pen can project at some large distance. In this latter case, you will also need to consider the output size of the laser beam, the distance to the object being illuminated, and any absorption or scattering along the way.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Basic physics for medical imaging. OpenStax CNX. Feb 17, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11630/1.1
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