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  • Understand Newton's third law of motion.
  • Apply Newton's third law to define systems and solve problems of motion.

There is a passage in the musical Man of la Mancha that relates to Newton’s third law of motion. Sancho, in describing a fight with his wife to Don Quixote, says, “Of course I hit her back, Your Grace, but she’s a lot harder than me and you know what they say, ‘Whether the stone hits the pitcher or the pitcher hits the stone, it’s going to be bad for the pitcher.’” This is exactly what happens whenever one body exerts a force on another—the first also experiences a force (equal in magnitude and opposite in direction). Numerous common experiences, such as stubbing a toe or throwing a ball, confirm this. It is precisely stated in Newton’s third law of motion    .

Newton’s third law of motion

Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that it exerts.

This law represents a certain symmetry in nature : Forces always occur in pairs, and one body cannot exert a force on another without experiencing a force itself. We sometimes refer to this law loosely as “action-reaction,” where the force exerted is the action and the force experienced as a consequence is the reaction. Newton’s third law has practical uses in analyzing the origin of forces and understanding which forces are external to a system.

We can readily see Newton’s third law at work by taking a look at how people move about. Consider a swimmer pushing off from the side of a pool, as illustrated in [link] . She pushes against the pool wall with her feet and accelerates in the direction opposite to that of her push. The wall has exerted an equal and opposite force back on the swimmer. You might think that two equal and opposite forces would cancel, but they do not because they act on different systems . In this case, there are two systems that we could investigate: the swimmer or the wall. If we select the swimmer to be the system of interest, as in the figure, then F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} is an external force on this system and affects its motion. The swimmer moves in the direction of F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} . In contrast, the force F feet on wall size 12{F rSub { size 8{"feet on wall"} } } {} acts on the wall and not on our system of interest. Thus F feet on wall size 12{F rSub { size 8{"feet on wall"} } } {} does not directly affect the motion of the system and does not cancel F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} . Note that the swimmer pushes in the direction opposite to that in which she wishes to move. The reaction to her push is thus in the desired direction.

A swimmer is exerting a force with her feet on a wall inside a swimming pool represented by an arrow labeled as vector F sub Feet on wall, pointing toward the right, and the wall is also exerting an equal force on her feet, represented by an arrow labeled as vector F sub Wall on feet, having the same length but pointing toward the left. The direction of acceleration of the swimmer is toward the left, shown by an arrow toward the left.
When the swimmer exerts a force F feet on wall size 12{F rSub { size 8{"feet on wall"} } } {} on the wall, she accelerates in the direction opposite to that of her push. This means the net external force on her is in the direction opposite to F feet on wall size 12{F rSub { size 8{"feet on wall"} } } {} . This opposition occurs because, in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion, the wall exerts a force F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} on her, equal in magnitude but in the direction opposite to the one she exerts on it. The line around the swimmer indicates the system of interest. Note that F feet on wall size 12{F rSub { size 8{"feet on wall"} } } {} does not act on this system (the swimmer) and, thus, does not cancel F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} . Thus the free-body diagram shows only F wall on feet size 12{F rSub { size 8{"wall on feet"} } } {} , w size 12{w} {} , the gravitational force, and BF size 12{ ital "BF"} {} , the buoyant force of the water supporting the swimmer’s weight. The vertical forces w size 12{w} {} and BF size 12{ ital "BF"} {} cancel since there is no vertical motion.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Une: physics for the health professions. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11697/1.1
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