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Silicon dioxide (silica, SiO 2 ) has been the most researched chemical compound apart from water. Silica has been used throughout history, for example, flint, which when sharpened formed one of humanities first tools. Crystalline silica, or sand, was melted into glass as early as 5000 B.C., birthing a technology that has gained sophistication in modern times. Silicon is the second most plentiful element in the Earth’s crust, the most plentiful being oxygen. It is thus surprising that it was not until 1800 that silica was named a compound by Sir Humphry Davy. He, however, failed to isolate its components via electrolysis, and it is Jöns Jacob Berzelius who is thus credited with discovering silica in 1824. He heated potassium fluorosilicate with potassium metal and, after purifying the product of this reaction with water, produced amorphous silica powder.

The most common forms of silica employed in industry include α-quartz, vitreous silica, silica gel, fumed silica and diatomaceous earth. Synthetic quartz is hydrothermally grown from a seed crystal, with aqueous NaOH and vitreous SiO 2 , at 400 °C and 1.7 kbar. Because it is a piezoelectric material, it is used in crystal oscillators, transducers, pickups and filters for frequency control and modulation. Vitreous silica is super cooled liquid silica used in laboratory glassware, protective tubing sheaths and vapor grown films. Silica gel is formed from the reaction of aqueous sodium silicate with acid, after which it is washed and dehydrated. Silica gel is an exceptionally porous material with numerous applications including use as a dessicant, chromatographic support, catalyst substrate and insulator. Pyrogenic or fumed silica is produced by the high temperature hydrolysis, in an oxyhydrogen flame, of SiCl 4 . Its applications include use as a thickening agent and reinforcing filler in polymers. Diatomaceous earth, the ecto-skeletons of tiny unicellular marine algae called diatoms, is mined from vast deposits in Europe and North America. Its primary use is in filtration. Additional applications include use as an abrasive, insulator, filler and a lightweight aggregate.

Methods of colloidal growth and thin film deposition of amorphous silica have been investigated since 1925. The two most common and well-investigated methods of forming SiO 2 in a sol or as a film or coating are condensation of alkoxysilanes (known as the Stober method) and hydrolysis of metal alkoxides (the Iler or dense silica [DS] process).

Liquid phase deposition (lpd)

LPD is a method for the “non-electrochemical production of polycrystalline ceramic films at low temperatures.” LPD, along with other aqueous solution methods [chemical bath deposition (CBD), successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and electroless deposition (ED) with catalyst] has developed as a potential substitute for vapor-phase and chemical-precursor systems. Aqueous solution methods are not dependent on vacuum systems or glove boxes, and the use of easily acquired reagents reduces reliance on expensive or sensitive organometallic precursors. Thus, LPD holds potential for reduced production costs and environmental impact. Films may be deposited on substrates that might not be chemically or mechanically stable at higher temperatures. In addition, the use of liquid as a deposition medium allows coating of non-planar substrates, expanding the range of substrates that are capable of being coated. Aqueous deposition techniques have not reached the level of maturation that vapor-phase techniques have in respect to a high level of control over composition, microstructure and growth rates of the resulting films, but their prospect makes them attractive for research.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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