5.3 Exponential curves  (Page 2/2)

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Once again, this is predictable from the rules of exponents: $2\cdot {2}^{x}={2}^{1}\cdot {2}^{x}={2}^{x+1}$

Using exponential functions to model behavior

In the first chapter, we talked about linear functions as functions that add the same amount every time . For instance, $y=3x+4$ models a function that starts at 4; every time you increase $x$ by 1, you add 3 to $y$ .

Exponential functions are conceptually very analogous: they multiply by the same amount every time . For instance, $y=4×{3}^{x}$ models a function that starts at 4; every time you increase $x$ by 1, you multiply $y$ by 3.

Linear functions can go down, as well as up, by having negative slopes : $y=-3x+4$ starts at 4 and subtracts 3 every time. Exponential functions can go down, as well as up, by having fractional bases : $y=4×\left(\frac{1}{3}{\right)}^{x}$ starts at 4 and divides by 3 every time.

Exponential functions often defy intuition, because they grow much faster than people expect.

Modeling exponential functions

Your father’s house was worth $100,000 when he bought it in 1981. Assuming that it increases in value by $8%\text{}$ every year, what was the house worth in the year 2001? (*Before you work through the math, you may want to make an intuitive guess as to what you think the house is worth. Then, after we crunch the numbers, you can check to see how close you got.) Often, the best way to approach this kind of problem is to begin by making a chart, to get a sense of the growth pattern. Year Increase in Value Value 1981 N/A 100,000 1982 $8%\text{}$ of 100,000 = 8,000 108,000 1983 $8%\text{}$ of 108,000 = 8,640 116,640 1984 $8%\text{}$ of 116,640 = 9,331 125,971 Before you go farther, make sure you understand where the numbers on that chart come from . It’s OK to use a calculator. But if you blindly follow the numbers without understanding the calculations, the whole rest of this section will be lost on you. In order to find the pattern, look at the “Value” column and ask: what is happening to these numbers every time? Of course, we are adding $8%\text{}$ each time, but what does that really mean? With a little thought—or by looking at the numbers—you should be able to convince yourself that the numbers are multiplying by 1.08 each time . That’s why this is an exponential function: the value of the house multiplies by 1.08 every year. So let’s make that chart again, in light of this new insight. Note that I can now skip the middle column and go straight to the answer we want. More importantly, note that I am not going to use my calculator this time—I don’t want to multiply all those 1.08s, I just want to note each time that the answer is 1.08 times the previous answer . Year House Value 1981 100,000 1982 $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}\text{08}$ 1983 $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{2}$ 1984 $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{3}$ 1985 $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{4}$ $y$ $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{\text{something}}$ If you are not clear where those numbers came from, think again about the conclusion we reached earlier: each year, the value multiplies by 1.08. So if the house is worth $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{2}$ in 1983, then its value in 1984 is $\left(\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{2}\right)×1\text{.}\text{08}$ , which is $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{3}$ . Once we write it this way, the pattern is clear. I have expressed that pattern by adding the last row, the value of the house in any year $y$ . And what is the mystery exponent? We see that the exponent is 1 in 1982, 2 in 1983, 3 in 1984, and so on. In the year $y$ , the exponent is $y-\text{1981}$ . So we have our house value function: $v\left(y\right)=\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{y-\text{1981}}$ That is the pattern we needed in order to answer the question. So in the year 2001, the value of the house is $\text{100},\text{000}×1\text{.}{\text{08}}^{\text{20}}$ . Bringing the calculator back, we find that the value of the house is now$466,095 and change.

Wow! The house is over four times its original value! That’s what I mean about exponential functions growing faster than you expect: they start out slow, but given time, they explode. This is also a practical life lesson about the importance of saving money early in life—a lesson that many people don’t realize until it’s too late.

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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