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  • First, the individual is an atom isolated from other individuals and from any kind of social or natural context. Each human individual has a nature prior to and independently of society.
  • Second, if this individualism is possessive, then it is characterized by unlimited desire. Humans are determined by their desires and passions. So if two or more individuals desire the same thing, then conflict is inevitable.
  • Third, Hobbes assumes a natural equality among human individuals. This doesn’t mean that everyone has the same powers or that no individual has more of any power than another. All it need mean is that even the most powerful among us is unable to so completely dominate others that he or she can lock a guarantee on peace and security.

Justice for hobbes

In Chapter XV of the Leviathan, Hobbes defined justice: From that law of nature, by which we are obliged to transfer to another, such rights, as being retained, hinder the peace of mankind, there followeth a third which is this, that men perform their covenants made: without which, covenants are in vain, and are but empty words; and the right of all men to all things remaining, we are still int he condition of war. And in this law of nature, consisteth the fountain and original of justice. for where no covenant hath preceded, there hath no right been transferred, and every man has right to everything; and consequently, no action can be unjust. But when a covenant is made, the to break it is unjust: and the definition of injustice, is no other than the not performance of covenant. And whatsoever is not unjust, is just. T. Hobbes. (1651). Leviathan: Edited with an Introduction by C. B. MacPherson Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, p. 201-202.

Rousseau's criticism

Rousseau (1712-17178) provides an insightful criticism of Hobbes. He argues that Hobbes did not dig deep enough in his effort to reach human nature prior to its reconstitution by civil society. The acquisitive desires that Hobbes uses to describe Human nature in its pre-social form are actually, themselves, the products of civilization itself. They are introduced along with the notion of private property. Rousseau sees this as a degeneration from original human nature, the noble savage whom he views romantically.

[Hobbes] had wrongly injected into the savage man's concern for self-preservation the need to satisfy a multitude of passions which are the product of society and which have made laws necessary. The evil man, he says, is a robust child. It remains to be seen whether savage man is a robust child....Moreover, their is another principle that Hobbes failed to notice, and which, having been given to man in order to mitigate, in certain circumstances, the ferocity of his egocentrism or the desire for self-preservation before this egocentrism of his came into being, tempers the ardor he has for his own well-being by an innate repugnance to seeing his fellow men suffer....I am referring to pity, a disposition that is fitting for beings that are as weak and as subject to ills as we are; a virtue all the more universal and all the more useful to man in that it precedes in him any kind of reflection, and so natural that even animals sometimes show noticeable signs of it. Rousseau, "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, Part One," in Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett (1987): 53.

Questions & Answers

current economic plans (MDGS) needs
Ajijola Reply
I don't know what is happening
surajkumar
What is economic
Joeali Reply
What is the importance of study economics
Wilma
Economic is the study of how humans make decisions in face of sacristy
Wilma
economics is the study of how humans makes decision in the face of scarcity
Kpienta
economics is the study of human behaviour when faced with difficult situation example when goods and services are scarcity.
Sydney
what is Economic
Dauda Reply
what is 4ps of economic?
thomas Reply
production place Price product
Benedict
Criticism of elasticity
Siddikur Reply
what is unemployment
Gyamfi Reply
ohk thanks
Gyamfi
why is unemployment rapid in the country
Gyamfi
I need more explanation
Odo
what is unemployment
Munanag Reply
not working
Bethel
some one who is willing qualified to work but can't find job
jackie
Bethel...explain? please
Abubakar
some one who is willing to work but can't find job
Hawa
Yes true
Brian
which one please
Hawa
unemployment refers to the ability for someone who is capable and willing to work but could not find a job..
Mnoko
some one who not able to find a job
Dennis
please what is the secret of learning?
thomas
What is stock market?
JOHN Reply
explain the various types of cost curve
Ruth Reply
Short-run average fixed cost (SRAFC) Short-run average total cost (SRAC or SRATC) Short-run average variable cost (AVC or SRAVC) Short-run fixed cost (FC or SRFC) Short-run marginal cost (SRMC) Short-run total cost (SRTC)
Romy
what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
the external factor will remained constant, except the price
Hasib
everything being equal
Chenwi
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Nikita
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
Amjad
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
Ariel
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
NABUBOLO Reply
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
Romy
no
NABUBOLO
they deal With prices
NABUBOLO
define the elasticity
NABUBOLO
explain different types of elasticity
NABUBOLO
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
Romy
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Romy
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
Romy
anything else?
Romy
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
Grace
Romy, what is microeconomic?
thomas
What is Economic please
Dauda
Thomas, microeconomics is the study of how consumers, workers, and firms interact to generate outcomes in specific markets
Kieran
Dauda, economics is the study of people and choices. it is on one side the study of wealth and on the more important side, a part of the study if man
Kieran
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
Ramon
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
Gabriel
I Mean on the same curve..
Gabriel
how can consumer surplus be calculated
Franklyn
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Source:  OpenStax, Business, government, and society. OpenStax CNX. Mar 04, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10560/1.6
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