The photoelectric effect has the properties discussed below. All these properties are consistent with the idea that individual photons of EM radiation are absorbed by individual electrons in a material, with the electron gaining the photon’s energy. Some of these properties are inconsistent with the idea that EM radiation is a simple wave. For simplicity, let us consider what happens with monochromatic EM radiation in which all photons have the same energy
$\text{hf}$ .
If we vary the frequency of the EM radiation falling on a material, we find the following: For a given material, there is a threshold frequency
${f}_{0}$ for the EM radiation below which no electrons are ejected, regardless of intensity. Individual photons interact with individual electrons. Thus if the photon energy is too small to break an electron away, no electrons will be ejected. If EM radiation was a simple wave, sufficient energy could be obtained by increasing the intensity.
Once EM radiation falls on a material, electrons are ejected without delay . As soon as an individual photon of a sufficiently high frequency is absorbed by an individual electron, the electron is ejected. If the EM radiation were a simple wave, several minutes would be required for sufficient energy to be deposited to the metal surface to eject an electron.
The number of electrons ejected per unit time is proportional to the intensity of the EM radiation and to no other characteristic. High-intensity EM radiation consists of large numbers of photons per unit area, with all photons having the same characteristic energy
$\text{hf}$ .
If we vary the intensity of the EM radiation and measure the energy of ejected electrons, we find the following:
The maximum kinetic energy of ejected electrons is independent of the intensity of the EM radiation . Since there are so many electrons in a material, it is extremely unlikely that two photons will interact with the same electron at the same time, thereby increasing the energy given it. Instead (as noted in 3 above), increased intensity results in more electrons of the same energy being ejected. If EM radiation were a simple wave, a higher intensity could give more energy, and higher-energy electrons would be ejected.
The kinetic energy of an ejected electron equals the photon energy minus the binding energy of the electron in the specific material. An individual photon can give all of its energy to an electron. The photon’s energy is partly used to break the electron away from the material. The remainder goes into the ejected electron’s kinetic energy. In equation form, this is given by
${\text{KE}}_{e}=\text{hf}-\text{BE},$
where
${\text{KE}}_{e}$ is the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electron,
$\text{hf}$ is the photon’s energy, and BE is the
binding energy of the electron to the particular material. (BE is sometimes called the
work function of the material.) This equation, due to Einstein in 1905, explains the properties of the photoelectric effect quantitatively. An individual photon of EM radiation (it does not come any other way) interacts with an individual electron, supplying enough energy, BE, to break it away, with the remainder going to kinetic energy. The binding energy is
$\text{BE}={\mathrm{hf}}_{0}$ , where
${f}_{0}$ is the threshold frequency for the particular material.
[link] shows a graph of maximum
${\text{KE}}_{e}$ versus the frequency of incident EM radiation falling on a particular material.
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=