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The indian subcontinent

The power of the Kushans continued to fade and a line of native kings appeared in the Gupta Dynasty, beginning with Chandragupta I in A.D. 320, based in Magadha. His successor, Samudragupta, in a 50 year reign, became one of the foremost monarchs in India's long history. He conquered Bengal, Assam, Nepal and southern India and with the wealth thus gained promoted literature, science, religion and the arts. It was the Golden Age of India, while Europe and China were falling into what many have labeled the "Dark Ages". Buddhist art reached its zenith. The decimal system was used here long before the Arabs and Syrians used it. Chemistry developed from two sources – medicine and industries such as dyeing, soapmaking, tanning and the manufacture of glass and cement. The making of solid sugar by boiling cane juice was begun in this century. The Iranian frontier standing between the steppes and India secured the latter against invasion and thus indirectly contributed to the flowering of the Indian culture. Toynbee (Ref. 220 ) considers the Gupta Dynasty as a resumed Indian universal state after the Hellenic interruption of Alexander's conquests. (Ref. 46 , 229 , 220 , 213 )

The great Hindu epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, were written down in Sanskrit in this period. The first of these was three and one-half times as long as the entire Bible. The Brahmans, the priestly class of the Hindus, were again growing in wealth and power and by the end of the century they finally won out over the Buddhists and established a universal religion of Hinduism. This emerged from older Brahminism through re-evaluation of a multiplicity of local worships.

Sushrata (also Susrata or Susruta) was a great Indian surgeon who did many advanced surgical procedures, including cataract operations, hernia repairs, lithotomies and Caesarian sections. Cataract was treated by couching (displacing the lens downward); amputations were common and several types of plastic surgery procedures were done. Since cutting off the nose was an official punishment for adultery, Indian surgeons developed elaborate flap operations turning skin down from the forehead to reconstruct a nose. Sushrata also excelled at plastic repair of torn ear lobes. His armamentaria included 121 surgical instruments. He recommended the observations of corpses as a means of learning anatomy but demands of ritual purity prevented dissection. Some 1,120 diseases and 760 medicinal plants were classified. Physicians were taught in apprenticeships and then subjected to certification by the ruler. The neophyte finally took an oath, not unlike the Hippocratic oath of Greece. (Ref. 46 , 125 ) (Continue on page 400)

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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