<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The indian subcontinent

The power of the Kushans continued to fade and a line of native kings appeared in the Gupta Dynasty, beginning with Chandragupta I in A.D. 320, based in Magadha. His successor, Samudragupta, in a 50 year reign, became one of the foremost monarchs in India's long history. He conquered Bengal, Assam, Nepal and southern India and with the wealth thus gained promoted literature, science, religion and the arts. It was the Golden Age of India, while Europe and China were falling into what many have labeled the "Dark Ages". Buddhist art reached its zenith. The decimal system was used here long before the Arabs and Syrians used it. Chemistry developed from two sources – medicine and industries such as dyeing, soapmaking, tanning and the manufacture of glass and cement. The making of solid sugar by boiling cane juice was begun in this century. The Iranian frontier standing between the steppes and India secured the latter against invasion and thus indirectly contributed to the flowering of the Indian culture. Toynbee (Ref. 220 ) considers the Gupta Dynasty as a resumed Indian universal state after the Hellenic interruption of Alexander's conquests. (Ref. 46 , 229 , 220 , 213 )

The great Hindu epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, were written down in Sanskrit in this period. The first of these was three and one-half times as long as the entire Bible. The Brahmans, the priestly class of the Hindus, were again growing in wealth and power and by the end of the century they finally won out over the Buddhists and established a universal religion of Hinduism. This emerged from older Brahminism through re-evaluation of a multiplicity of local worships.

Sushrata (also Susrata or Susruta) was a great Indian surgeon who did many advanced surgical procedures, including cataract operations, hernia repairs, lithotomies and Caesarian sections. Cataract was treated by couching (displacing the lens downward); amputations were common and several types of plastic surgery procedures were done. Since cutting off the nose was an official punishment for adultery, Indian surgeons developed elaborate flap operations turning skin down from the forehead to reconstruct a nose. Sushrata also excelled at plastic repair of torn ear lobes. His armamentaria included 121 surgical instruments. He recommended the observations of corpses as a means of learning anatomy but demands of ritual purity prevented dissection. Some 1,120 diseases and 760 medicinal plants were classified. Physicians were taught in apprenticeships and then subjected to certification by the ruler. The neophyte finally took an oath, not unlike the Hippocratic oath of Greece. (Ref. 46 , 125 ) (Continue on page 400)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask