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Although examples like the following have been used for years to illustrate this idea, they are still valuable. Read the following sentence in a conversational tone with your own personal inflection.

Make a joyful noise unto the Lord.

Then underline the syllables that received the most weight. Go back and read it a second time to see if you can give the text another interpretation by stressing still other words. By this time it has been realized that more than two interpretations of the text are possible. In fact, there are many. This is also true in choral music. The weight or stress given by a choir to words will influence its communication to an audience. It will also have a direct bearing on the choir's ability to sing artistically shaped phrases. Do not allow the choir to give equal weight to each syllable unless that is the desire of the composer.

Two people really give the text its interpretation; the composer and the conductor. The composer, by his underlay of the text, demonstrates his preference regarding the stress. The example given in figure 4.6 shows that the composer has given rhythmic and melodic importance to "make," "noise," and "Lord."

The conductor may further emphasize these words and fully realize the composer's intent by instructing the choir to stretch (apply the growth principle) particularly to these words. They should not be accented, but the choir should "sing into them," which will create the effect of inflective stress. This will prevent a harsh rendering of the text, and will also help obtain a lyric vocal line.

By using the simple device of numbering the words and syllables that receive the primary stress as 1, those receiving secondary emphasis as 2, and those that are unstressed as 3, one gets a clear picture of stress patterns. In the case of the text in figure 3 the stress is:

In this short example there are three primary stresses, two secondary stresses, and four unstressed words or syllables. The music is written to provide that stress. Conductors must be certain not to stress any of the unstressed words or syllables. Often, conductors become pretentious regarding choral tone and change the pronunciation of unstressed words or syllables, thereby completely changing the word stress, word flow, rhythmic inflection, and musical and text expression. This must be avoided. Usually the number of unstressed words and syllables is greater than the number of those stressed. By emphasizing only the stressed words and syllables the conductor begins to create a verbal setting in which musical expression can flourish. Without proper word stress and, consequently, excellent word flow, it is not possible to produce a musical phrase or be expressive. Granted, in some cases the emphasis will be slightly different for different individuals but only the attention to text stress can lead to musical expression.

In the following setting of the same text, the composer has indicated an entirely different inflection (see figure 5). The intent here is to present a setting of the text in which all syllables have virtually the same importance. This emphasis is a rhythmic one and, with the use of percussion, reveals the "joyful noise" portion of the text.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Choral techniques. OpenStax CNX. Mar 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11191/1.1
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