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In this module, we look into the general characteristics of founders of religious movements.

When we look at all the different religions in our world, we may well ask the question: who started them all? In some cases we know the answers, but in others not. We know, for instance, that Jesus was the founder of Christianity, that Muhammad was the founder of Islam, that Siddhartha Gautama (or the Buddha) was the founder of Buddhism and that Baha’u’llah was the founder of the Baha’i faith. In the case of African Religion and Hinduism we simply do not know who started it all. In the case of a religion like Judaism some people may say that it was Abraham while others may say that it was Moses.

Founders, then, are people who are regarded by their followers as the initiators of their religious community. If someone has a religion named after him or her (Buddhism, Christianity), that is pretty much a give-away of who is regarded as the founder. In other cases, there is no direct link between the names of the founder and of the religion. Calling Islam Muhammadanism, for example, is simply wrong.

In this module we will firstly present a brief profile of a religious founder. This profile will outline some of the characteristics that founders of religion appear to have in common. With this profile as backdrop, we will consider four case studies which will, to greater or lesser extent reflect some of the features that the profile has presented us with.

General context

A religious founder generally operates in a multi–cultural society . In such a society population groups with culturally different backgrounds live next to each other or intermingle with each other. Over a long period of time these cultures may come into contact with each other on a permanent basis. In such a situation cultural change , that is the mutual influence between two or more cultures, may take place. Such a situation is known as acculturation.

A religious founder also operates in a crisis situation . The latter could emerge from a process of acculturation where different cultures are exerting influence on each other to such an extent that the entire society finds itself in a situation of transition. Under such circumstances cultural change cause people to feel insecure and uprooted. Another possibility is that the crisis situation is caused by or is the result of oppression or war. A country’s territory might have been invaded by hostile forces and the general population might suffer oppression and be forced into subservience to foreign powers. In the case of war, the constant or long term threat of enemy forces may cause great anxiety and uncertainty.

Religious context

In a crisis situation individuals and groups experience feelings of dissatisfaction, injustice, uncertainty, anxiety and distress . These feelings can be so strong and intense that many would believe that the end of the world is near. Founders of religion always act in circumstances and times where strong end of time expectations are alive.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Learning about religion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 18, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11780/1.1
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