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Why shove your colony mates?

Jacobs and Jarvis (1996) looked at shoving in H. glaber , the naked mole-rat, testing a hypothesis that it occurs because of a conflict between a queen and her non-breeding colony members. The work-conflict hypothesis supposes that non-breeders withhold aid because they may become breeders or because it gives them more inclusive fitness, so the queen shoves them to encourage work. The effect of shoving, then, would be an increase in work. The actual results, however, were quite different. They found no relationship between relatedness and shove rate, so the queen shows no kin bias in her shoving. She is however, more likely to shove her larger workers than smaller ones. More importantly, shoving does not increase work rates. In addition, larger colony members work less than smaller members even though they are shoved more often, and non-breeders occasionally shove other non-breeders (Jacobs and Jarvis 1996). The fact that non-breeders shove each other suggests that shoving can be used to assert dominance. The larger workers are likely members of the dispersal caste found by O’Riain et al. (1996) and Braude (2000). The queen shoves them more often because they pose more of a threat to her dominance, and possibly, shoving helps ensure their reproductive suppression.

Naked mole-rats are facultative inbreeders , meaning they will inbreed since they have no aversion to it. Given the option, however, they choose to outbreed (Clarke and Faulkes 1999, Ciszek 2000). Both Clarke and Faulkes (1999) and Ciszek (2000) found experimentally that reproductively active females generally preferred unfamiliar mates to familiar ones. In order to distinguish familiar from unfamiliar mole-rats, comparable to distinguishing kin from non-kin, they likely use scent ( [link] ). In naked mole-rats, kin recognition does not help with reproductive suppression, but does allow for incest avoidance given the opportunity to outbreed. Outbreeding encourages gene flow, which lessens the impact of deleterious alleles on offspring fitness. Breeding with non-related mole-rats helps lower the inbreeding depression , which is the decrease in overall fitness of offspring and their reproductive capabilities caused by inbreeding.

Kin recognition

In order to maximize inclusive fitness, mole-rats must ensure that their aid is given only to relatives and not to outsiders who exploit them. As a result, they must have some way to identify relatives. As O’Riain and Jarvis (1997) point out, direct determination of relatedness in mole-rats will not work too well since relatedness in colonies is high. It is not surprising, then, that mole-rats identify colony members instead of kin. Colony members are generally highly related, and mole-rats are unlikely to encounter many foreigners inside their burrows. The probable mechanism used by mole-rats to identify foreigners and colony members is odor familiarity (O’Riain and Jarvis 1997). However, in common mole-rats and naked mole-rats, odor familiarity must be continually reinforced. If a mole-rat is removed from its colony for long enough (at least twelve hours), upon reintroduction it is viewed as foreign since it has lost the distinctive scent of the burrow (Burda 1995, O’Riain and Jarvis 1997).

Another result of kin recognition, in naked mole-rats at least, is that patrollers can identify intruders and start an alarm to get rid of them. Colony members want to keep foreign naked mole-rats out of the colony because the intruder reduces their chance at eventually gaining breeding rights (O’Riain and Jarvis 1997), especially given that breeders prefer outbreeding to inbreeding.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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