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Despite the popularity of the Southern woman-on-a-pedestal myth, it never fit Texas lower- and middle-class women; the conditions and demands of their lives required a different response. The struggle to come to terms with the disjunction between that myth and reality was addressed by novelist Dorothy Scarborough, a Texan born in 1878, a Baylor graduate and teacher, an Oxford scholar, and a professor of English at Columbia University. Miss Scarborough was Annie Jenkins Sallee's neighbor in Waco and classmate at Baylor. Both their fathers were trustees of Baylor University; both had older sisters who married pastors who served as presidents of the Southern Baptist Convention (Dorothy Scarborough's sister Douglass married George W. McDaniel, Jr., whose primary pastorate was Richmond, Virginia). Dorothy Scarborough's papers are in the Texas Collection, Baylor University, and merit closer examination by some scholar. Her novel, The Wind , published in 1925, gives two women's responses to the west Texas frontier of the 1880s. Letty, the apparent heroine, is a delicate, mannered beauty from Virginia, thrust by tragic circumstances out of her bucolic childhood home to live as the ward of a cousin in Sweetwater, Texas. Letty's female antithesis is Cora, "thoroughly a woman," but brash, egotistical, and aggressive. Lettie's nervous, sensitive nature and her expectation that others will take care of her leave her totally defenseless against the rawness of her new life, and she is mentally and physically destroyed by its symbolic essence, the wind. The

"climate that so terrifies and dwarfs [Letty's] spirits and energies,"
however, is an
"intoxicating stimulus"
to Cora, who survives--not with a pedestal image intact, but by dint of a fierce, dominating spirit that is a match for nature's force.

Dorothy Scarborough, The Wind (New York: Harper, 1925; reprint ed., Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1979), quotes from pp. 94, 117.

This juxtaposition was a fictional exaggeration, but it demonstrated the total inadequacy of a passive, self-effacing feminine model in the Texas setting, as well as the real possibility of female egotism and strength. At the turn of the century Baptists found themselves equivocating between the two options, clinging nostalgically to the outdated ideal while experimenting with new powers and capabilities.

By 1895 there were frequent references to the emergence of a "new woman," but she was usually identified in the Texas Baptist newspapers of that time as one who exemplified frivolity rather than demanding rights. This version of the new woman traded her interest in home and church for a preoccupation with

"fine dress and all the gaudy trappings of social life."

BS , January 30, 1902, p. 4.

Although her appearance indicated some anxiety over a shift in morality and a rise in income and class among Baptists or Texans in general, she drew more humorous asides than serious confrontation. Characterized as "Miss Bessie Societyqueen," she sought constant pleasure among rough company at dances or devoted all her energy to club work.

BS , March 1, 1900, p. 5.

The type who demanded expanded privileges were discounted as
"old maids,"
trying to make others as unhappy as themselves by organizing movements for causes as silly as
"the right of women to wear beards."

BS , July 4, 1895, p. 4; BS , April 18, 1895, p. 4.

These new women, Baptist Standard editor Cranfill concluded, were just like
"the first and oldest woman who was easily beguiled by Satan"
except Eve wore fig leaves and they wore bloomers.

BS , September 19, 1895, p. 4.

The "woman question" touched Southern Baptists, but as women of conservative orientation, not many responded by either embracing high society or becoming militant feminists. Instead, they expanded their roles in education and organization, utilizing both to promote their traditional belief structure. Although they claimed to be simply

"the old woman adjusted to the times,"

BS , December 24, 1914, p. 1.

they actually experienced a growing sense of equality with men, but their reaction was to insist that men meet their standards rather than their attempting to become more mannish. Indicative of this trend was an editorial in the 1897 Baptist Standard on
"Fallen Women and Fallen Men"
that drew more response from women than any other substantial or potentially controversial article printed between 1880 and 1920.

BS , April 1, 1897, n.p.; responses continued in the BS through April, May and June, 1897.

Women denied (as had the editor) that it was more shameful for a woman to commit a sexual offense than for a man to do so. They called for the same rehabilitation and acceptance of
"reformed women"
that society had always granted
"reformed men."
Mrs. J. L. Vredenburgh succinctly summed up their message in an Austin speech:

. . .there is no double standard with God. His laws are the same for men and women, the penalty the same. What is right for one, is right for the other; what is wrong for one is wrong for the other; there is no sex in God's code.

BS , February 24, 1898, p. 11.

The radical element of their emancipation lay in their insisting that a single standard of morality applied to both sexes and that it closely matched the loving, faithful, self-sacrificing ideal associated with women. Although it may bespeak a measure of defensiveness, the following statement by a woman also bears the mark of self-confidence and of congruence between Christian ideology and its expression in women's lives:

Did you ever think how Christ Himself is a type of the feminine nature? Do not misunderstand me, not an effeminate Christ, but a manly Christ, taking the feminine attributes, the heroism of the Son of Man is the heroism of ideal womanhood and motherhood. The very virtues which He lifted to the Mount, were precisely the same virtues which the past ages had scorned as feminine[:] meekness, poverty of spirit, peacemaking, purity.

BS , August 28, 1913, p. 15.

Self-satisfaction did not run so deep that women felt they had monopolized Christian virtues. Another writer, for instance, emphasized spiritual equality by choosing attributes associated with each sex to describe a common moral standard:

The glory of Christianity is that it is fitted to make both men and women stronger, braver, more gentle to each other and to their suffering brethren, and more loyal to the Divine Master, who recognized in men and women alike the capacity for spiritual life.

BS , December 28, 1911, p. 9.

These "new" Baptist women did not imagine or propose that the pursuit of a single Christian ideal would eliminate psychological or occupational differences between the sexes any more than it would the physiological. They assumed (even preferred) that a diversity in orientation and activities along sexual lines would continue to be manifested. Particularly was that true regarding women's maternal role; their model of Christian womanhood did not exclude

"loving babies and loving home."

BS , December 24, 1914, p. 1.

But they celebrated their identity as women and enlarged their definition of that identity without divesting themselves of their
"sacred canopy."

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
Amos
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
Frank
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
Alao
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
bisham
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Frank
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Frank
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
Frank
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
Frank
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
Harika
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
Mbah
what is money
Mbah
Difine macro economics
agaba
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Wesonga
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
Wesonga
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
Jane
what are implications of computing national income?.
agaba
pl
MUDASIRU
what is the formulae for calculating national income
MUDASIRU
it calculated by value added method
Praveen
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
Praveen
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Ogbaji
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
Praveen
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
assani
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
Yonathan
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
assani
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
BADAMASIU
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
assani
Politics
Job
politics has done what?
assani
consider time assani
Mary
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
Emmanuel
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
Emmanuel
🙈
Emmanuel
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
Emmanuel
I think the main causes of unemployment is lack of INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OVER POPULATION OVER DEPENDENT ON GOVERNMENT LACK OF SELF EMPOWERMENT...
ananti
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Vishal
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
Joe
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
Joe
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Emmanuel
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
dajan
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Alao
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
Emmanuel
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
Alao
thanks Alae
Emmanuel
u are welcome
Alao
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
Joe
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
sj
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
Seth
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Joe
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Baraka
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
Anita
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Pranav
Don't get you
Anita
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
Onyeking
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Pranav
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Source:  OpenStax, Patricia martin thesis. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11572/1.2
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