# 4.8 Integrated circuit manufacturing: bird's eye view

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This module provides a bird's eye view of Integrated Circuit manufacturing. It steps through the process of manufacturing an IC, from the n-tank to patterning the metallization.

It will no doubt be helpful if we also take a plane or "bird's eye" view of what this circuit looks like aswell. There are, in fact, some interesting things we can gain by looking at some of them.

We have been looking at the development of the circuit from a cross-sectional point of view, watching theformation of the various levels which make up the finished CMOS inverter. This is, in fact, not the way a circuit designer looksat things. A circuit designer sees things from above, and only worries about the placement of transistors, and how they will beconnected together. In fact, the only factor in the actual design of the layout engineer has any choice on is thetransistor width, W. All other parameters are decided upon beforehand by the process engineer. So what does the layoutengineer see? We start with the n- implant to make the n-tank, as shown in . (You should go back and follow along with the cross-sectional views of the process, aswe review looking at things from the top.)

A mask opposite to that of the n-tank allows us to an n-channel ${V}_{T}$ adjust. We next deposit and pattern the nitride for the active regions, and grow the field oxide (FOX) . We remove the nitride, and deposit and pattern the poly., as seenin shows what the two masks look like for the n+ and p+ source/drain implants: Note that the gate poly extends beyond where the implant is being performed (inside the dotted line). This is a design rule which is the way the circuit designer takes into account the fact that the manufacturingprocess must have some tolerance built in, because things will not always be lined up just perfectly. Now we make some contactholes, seen in : And finally, we sputter and pattern the metallization, which is depicted in . You should go back to MOSFETs , and convince yourself that the circuit shown in is indeed what has been constructed in . See if you can identify all of the correct parts. Note that there is a connectionbetween ${V}_{\mathrm{ss}}$ (ground) and the p-substrate very close to the n-channel source. There is also a contact between the n-moatand ${V}_{\mathrm{dd}}$ which is very close to the p-channel source. What advantage would this have? Hint: review thediscussion of latch-up .

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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