# 4.8 Integrated circuit manufacturing: bird's eye view

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This module provides a bird's eye view of Integrated Circuit manufacturing. It steps through the process of manufacturing an IC, from the n-tank to patterning the metallization.

It will no doubt be helpful if we also take a plane or "bird's eye" view of what this circuit looks like aswell. There are, in fact, some interesting things we can gain by looking at some of them.

We have been looking at the development of the circuit from a cross-sectional point of view, watching theformation of the various levels which make up the finished CMOS inverter. This is, in fact, not the way a circuit designer looksat things. A circuit designer sees things from above, and only worries about the placement of transistors, and how they will beconnected together. In fact, the only factor in the actual design of the layout engineer has any choice on is thetransistor width, W. All other parameters are decided upon beforehand by the process engineer. So what does the layoutengineer see? We start with the n- implant to make the n-tank, as shown in . (You should go back and follow along with the cross-sectional views of the process, aswe review looking at things from the top.)

A mask opposite to that of the n-tank allows us to an n-channel ${V}_{T}$ adjust. We next deposit and pattern the nitride for the active regions, and grow the field oxide (FOX) . We remove the nitride, and deposit and pattern the poly., as seenin shows what the two masks look like for the n+ and p+ source/drain implants: Note that the gate poly extends beyond where the implant is being performed (inside the dotted line). This is a design rule which is the way the circuit designer takes into account the fact that the manufacturingprocess must have some tolerance built in, because things will not always be lined up just perfectly. Now we make some contactholes, seen in : And finally, we sputter and pattern the metallization, which is depicted in . You should go back to MOSFETs , and convince yourself that the circuit shown in is indeed what has been constructed in . See if you can identify all of the correct parts. Note that there is a connectionbetween ${V}_{\mathrm{ss}}$ (ground) and the p-substrate very close to the n-channel source. There is also a contact between the n-moatand ${V}_{\mathrm{dd}}$ which is very close to the p-channel source. What advantage would this have? Hint: review thediscussion of latch-up .

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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