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SRAM uses 6-Transistor to store a bit. SRAM is dominant form of embedded memory. It comprises 60- 70% chip area and 75% - 85% transistor count. As the logic gates density is increasing correspondingly the memory density must increase.

Statistical dopent fluctuations, variation in oxide thickness and line edge roughness increases the spread in V Th and I ON /I OFF in nano-scale regime [Murari 2003]. Increased leakage and parametric variations are making scaling of 6-T SRAM memory array difficult.

Due to fundamental physical limit to scaling, the era of conventional linear scaling of transistor dimensions has ended. Power dissipation and process induced variations have become the major issues for continued scaling of Si MOSFETs in future generation.

New materials and device structure are needed to continue the scaling trend as seen in ITRS-2003 Road map given in Figure 2.23.

According to ITRS 2003, by 2014 L Gate = 35nm, V DD = 0.4V and clock frequency = 30GHz.

Shrinking geometries, low power voltages and high frequency have a negative impact on

reliability. These enhanced features have increased the failure rates. New and innovative methods to meet the challenges of nano miniaturization.

Multiple core with threading has been one innovation for solving the thermal management at nano level.

Copper interconnect provides higher electromagnetic threshold than Aluminum. So Industry is adopting Cu interconnects.

Fault avoidance and fault tolerance are the possible ways of improved reliability.

Fault avoidance relies on improved materials, improved manufacturing processes and improved circuit design. Cu interconnects is an example of improved materials.

SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) is the process solution for lower circuit sensitivity to particle induced transients. Fault tolerance is implemented at circuit and system level. It relies on error detection and error correction code.

  1. Future Generation Integrated Circuits.

Human appetite for computation has grown faster than the processors power of real life computers. We need more powerful processors just to keep up with modern applications like interactive multi-media, mobile computing and wireless communication. In addition battery power is at premium in mobile computing environment hence power aware components/systems are indispensible.

Low power design can be achieved at different level of the system- basic process/device level (threshold reduction, multi-threshold deices), at circuit level (transistor sizing, logic optimization, activity driven power down, low swing logic, adiabatic switching), at architecture level (voltage scaling, parallelism,, instruction set , signal correlation) at algorithm level( complexity, concurrency, locality, regularity, data representation) and at system level.(design partitioning and power down).

We have to simultaneously look at performance-power-cost product . This will lead to new computer architecture.

As we scale down the dimensions for each new generation technology, new areas of applications are emerging.

To continue its historical growth and continue to follow Moore’s Law, the Semiconductor Industry will require advances at all fronts- from front end processors and lithography to design innovations, high performance process architecture and SOC solutions.

Further down the scaling strategy we are bound to hit a road block.

The recent development in the field of Graphene Transistors show that these could be a promising candidate for taking over the mantle for continued scaling down according to Moore’s Law.[Kreupl, Franz “ Carbon nano-tubes finally deliver”, Nature, . 484 , 321-322, 19 th April 2012; Franklin, Aaron D.;Luisier, Mathieu; Han, Shu-Jen;et.al. “Sub-10nm Carbon Nano tube Transistors”, Nano Letters Nature, 12, 758-762 (2012) ].

The present Graphene Transistor using single walled Carbon nano-tube(SWCNT) of 9nm at a supply voltage of 0.4V switches from ‘0’ to ‘1’. The current ratio of ON to OFF is 10,000 times which is excellent for LOGIC applications.. This operates at low voltage hence it mitigates the demand in energy. The only difficulty is in fabricating these devices because of non-availability of SWCNT of one flavor.

In contrast according to IRTS 2011[ITRS2011 Edition , Front End Processors, Go.nature.com/qykuh1(2011)], a similar sized Si MOSFET of 9nm gate length and operating at 0.64V will arrive in the market in 2022 and we cannot anticipate the cost.

So it is ripe time that we explore for alternatives if the present rate of miniaturization and development has to be maintained. The Future Generation Integrated Circuits is discussed in Chapter 8 of this Collectrion.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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