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The power supply voltage can be significantly reduced with Tri-Gate without impairing its speed of operation due to increased effective width in Tri-Gate compared to planar transistor. The combination of lower supply voltage and reduced leakage current results in substantial power saving.

Fin-FET has a smaller cross-sectional area for the same performance of planar transistor.This gives a reduced area of incidence for cosmic particles which result into reduced Single-Event Error(SEE). This has been authenticated by 22nm implementation of Intel TriGate Fin-FET.

3-D Geometry and structure provides a host of improvements over planar structure as discussed above and enumerated below:

  1. Improved performance;
  2. Reduced active and leakage power;
  3. Higher packing density;
  4. Reduction in susceptibility to charged particles SEE.

In 1974, IBM’s Robert Dennnard, inventor of single transistor DRAM(Dynamic RAM) showed that when MOSFET geometries, voltages and dopings were scaled down, gate transit time also scaled down and performance thus improved by the same factor. [“Design of Ion-Implanted MOSFET with very small Physical Dimensions”, IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol.SC-9,No.5, 256-268,October 1974]. Taken together, density improvement as predicted by Moore’s Law and the performance improvement by Dennard signaled a coming explosion of growth in chip processing power. This precisely happened and this is what has been fueling Computer-Communication Revolution till date.

But there was great setback in 2005. Traditionally each new generation of Simanufacturing involves higher density and higher speed. But this scalng trend predicted above started plataeuing out at 90nm process technology. Clock rates stagnated as already pointed out above in Section 2.1.3. Power consumption and dissipation have grown with scaling. There was unacceptable gate leakage current. Therefore high-K(HfO, K=25) and metal gate technology was adopted. This maintained the improvement of performance by scaling till 40nm process technology.

On 4 th May 2011, Intel adopted Fin-FET (3D) Transistor for the manufacture of 22nm Semiconductor Products. Intel’s 22nm Tri-Gate uses 3 rd Generation high K/metal-gate scheme, copper interconnect, strained Si and 193nm Immersion Lithography.

International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductor (ITRS) in 2012 identified 3-D Transistor Technology as the primary enabler of all incremental semiconductor improvements beyond 22nm process technology. 3-D Tri Gate is able to maintain the advantage below 22nm of higher packing density not by scaling but by extending the transistor width in the third dimension. This allows designers the ability to trade off the size and width of the transistor ‘fin’ based on performance, power, and transistor density packing objectives.

By adopting the 3-D technology, the steady march and consistent improvement in packaging density according to Moore’s Law has been maintained. This has meant steady improvement in performance, reduction in power back-up and reduction in cost per transistor. In addition there has been steady improvement in standby power and operating power dissipation.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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