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In a similar fashion IC Technology has been a great leveler of human societies. All human beings are becoming a knowledge worker in one way or the other and the whole world is being rapidly transformed into a big Global Village where all new ideas or new technologies are available to one and all in the shortest time.

Moore’s Law prediction of increase in packing density from generation to generation with scaled down dimensions has enabled the integration of scaled up systems with greater functionalities and integration of bigger memory capacities in the same chip area.

Table 2..1.3.1. Clasification according to the scale of integration.

SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
<30comp.RTL 30 to 100comp.Mag.Comp.Chip 100,000comp4004μP >1million comp.PentiumIV >100million comp.Corei7

Table 2.1.3.2. MOS Dimension Scaling.

MOS 1967 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2013
L(μm) 10 0.25 0.18 0.13 0.10 0.07 32
DRAM(Gb/cm 2 ) 64M 0.18 0.38 0.42 0.91 1.85 32
Junction Depth(x j )nm 1000 100 70 60 52 40 ?
Interconnection Pitch(nm) 2000 600 500 350 245 70 32
Technology micron Sub-micron technology Deep sub-micron Ultra-Deep-Sub-micron

Table 2.1.3.3.Processor scaling from 2006 to 2012.

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
AMD K10 quad core2ML3 463M 2007 AMD 65nm 283
AMD K10 quad core6ML3 758M 2008 AMD 45nm 258
Corei7(quad) 731M 2008 Intel 45nm 263
6Core Opteron 2400 904M 2009 AMD 45nm 346
16Core Sparc T3 1B 2010 SUN/ORACLE 40nm 377
6Core Corei7 1.17B 2011 INTEL 32nm 216
QuadCore+GPU Corei7 1.4B 2012 INTEL 22nm 160
62Core Xeon Phi 5B 2012 INTEL 22nm ?

Table 2.1.3.4.GPU scaling from 1997 to 2012. [GPU – Graphical Processing Unit is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to display]

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
NV3 3.5M 1997 NVIDIA 350nm 90
Tahiti RV1070 4.3B 2011 AMD 28nm 365
GK110Kepler 7.08 2012 NVIDIA 28nm 561

Table 2.1.3.5.FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). It can be configured by the user according to his sysyem requirements. With increase in components the options for configurability is getting enhanced day by day.

FPGA MOS count Year Manufacturer Process
VIRTEX 70M 1997 Xilinx ?
VITEX II 350M 2000 Xilinx 130nm
Virtex 4 1B 2004 Xilinx 90nm
Stratia IV 2.5B 2008 Altera 40nm
Virtex 7 6.8B 2011 Xilinx 28nm

We have already seen in Section 2.1.2.6. that CMOS, because of its nanowatt power dissipation in stand-by mode, is becoming the technology of choice at the lecvel of ULSI. All applications are converging to CMOS process technology.

Theoretical proposition of CMOS as nano-watt logic family was made in1963 at International Solid-State-Circuits Conference(ISSCC-1963).

In 1968, RCA commercialized CMOS series of logic family known as CD4000 series. This was equivalent to TTL 74series.

Till 1970 the Industry Consensus was:

1.Mainstream device will remain NMOS.

2.BJT will be for Analog applications and for very high speed applications.

3.PMOS will be phased out.

4.CMOS will remain the process technology for Wrist Watches ICs.

This consensus was driven by the economic criteria. CMOS technology had a high cost factor. But in 1978, Hitachi pioneered a more economic way of fabricating CMOS products based on the invention of twin well CMOS by Y.Sakai and T.Masuchari then at Hitachi Center for Research Lab. In 1978, Hitachi marketed 4kSRAM based onCMOS which outperformed Intel’s equivalent 4kSRAM based on NMOS technology.

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
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Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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