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In a similar fashion IC Technology has been a great leveler of human societies. All human beings are becoming a knowledge worker in one way or the other and the whole world is being rapidly transformed into a big Global Village where all new ideas or new technologies are available to one and all in the shortest time.

Moore’s Law prediction of increase in packing density from generation to generation with scaled down dimensions has enabled the integration of scaled up systems with greater functionalities and integration of bigger memory capacities in the same chip area.

Table 2..1.3.1. Clasification according to the scale of integration.

SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
<30comp.RTL 30 to 100comp.Mag.Comp.Chip 100,000comp4004μP >1million comp.PentiumIV >100million comp.Corei7

Table 2.1.3.2. MOS Dimension Scaling.

MOS 1967 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2013
L(μm) 10 0.25 0.18 0.13 0.10 0.07 32
DRAM(Gb/cm 2 ) 64M 0.18 0.38 0.42 0.91 1.85 32
Junction Depth(x j )nm 1000 100 70 60 52 40 ?
Interconnection Pitch(nm) 2000 600 500 350 245 70 32
Technology micron Sub-micron technology Deep sub-micron Ultra-Deep-Sub-micron

Table 2.1.3.3.Processor scaling from 2006 to 2012.

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
AMD K10 quad core2ML3 463M 2007 AMD 65nm 283
AMD K10 quad core6ML3 758M 2008 AMD 45nm 258
Corei7(quad) 731M 2008 Intel 45nm 263
6Core Opteron 2400 904M 2009 AMD 45nm 346
16Core Sparc T3 1B 2010 SUN/ORACLE 40nm 377
6Core Corei7 1.17B 2011 INTEL 32nm 216
QuadCore+GPU Corei7 1.4B 2012 INTEL 22nm 160
62Core Xeon Phi 5B 2012 INTEL 22nm ?

Table 2.1.3.4.GPU scaling from 1997 to 2012. [GPU – Graphical Processing Unit is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to display]

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
NV3 3.5M 1997 NVIDIA 350nm 90
Tahiti RV1070 4.3B 2011 AMD 28nm 365
GK110Kepler 7.08 2012 NVIDIA 28nm 561

Table 2.1.3.5.FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). It can be configured by the user according to his sysyem requirements. With increase in components the options for configurability is getting enhanced day by day.

FPGA MOS count Year Manufacturer Process
VIRTEX 70M 1997 Xilinx ?
VITEX II 350M 2000 Xilinx 130nm
Virtex 4 1B 2004 Xilinx 90nm
Stratia IV 2.5B 2008 Altera 40nm
Virtex 7 6.8B 2011 Xilinx 28nm

We have already seen in Section 2.1.2.6. that CMOS, because of its nanowatt power dissipation in stand-by mode, is becoming the technology of choice at the lecvel of ULSI. All applications are converging to CMOS process technology.

Theoretical proposition of CMOS as nano-watt logic family was made in1963 at International Solid-State-Circuits Conference(ISSCC-1963).

In 1968, RCA commercialized CMOS series of logic family known as CD4000 series. This was equivalent to TTL 74series.

Till 1970 the Industry Consensus was:

1.Mainstream device will remain NMOS.

2.BJT will be for Analog applications and for very high speed applications.

3.PMOS will be phased out.

4.CMOS will remain the process technology for Wrist Watches ICs.

This consensus was driven by the economic criteria. CMOS technology had a high cost factor. But in 1978, Hitachi pioneered a more economic way of fabricating CMOS products based on the invention of twin well CMOS by Y.Sakai and T.Masuchari then at Hitachi Center for Research Lab. In 1978, Hitachi marketed 4kSRAM based onCMOS which outperformed Intel’s equivalent 4kSRAM based on NMOS technology.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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