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SSPD_Chapter 2.1.3.The present Nano-Technology Era in which Semiconductor Industries have formally entered with the discovery of exfoliated Graphene in October 2004.

2.1.3.nano technology era (october 2004 onward)

[A new class of materials Two-dimensional(2D)crystalline materials have recently been identified and analyzed (1). The first material in this new class is graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon. This new materialhas a number of unique properties, which makesit interesting for both fundamental studies and future applications.The electronic properties of this 2D-material leads to, for instance, an unusual quantum Hall effect.(2,3)It is a transparentconductor(4) which is one atom thin. It also gives rise to analogies with particle physics, including an exotic type of tunneling(5,6) which was predicted by the Swedish physicist Oscar Klein.(7).In addition graphene has a number of remarkable mechanical and electrical properties.

It is substantially stronger than steel, and it is very stretchable. The thermal and electrical

conductivity is very high and it can be used as a flexible conductor. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 honours two scientists, who have made the decisive contributions to this development.

They are Andre K. Geim and Konstantin S. Novoselov, both at the University of Manchester, UK. They have succeeded in producing, isolating, identifying and characterizing graphene.(1,8).

Excrpted from: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2010/advanced-physicsprize2010.pdf .

References:1. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, Science 306, 666 (2004).

2. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, Nature 438, 197 (2005).

3. Y. B. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, Nature 438, 201 (2005).

4. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. Grigorenko, K. Novoselov, T. Booth, T. Stauber, N. Peres,

and A. Geim, Science 320, 1308 (2008).

5. M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, Nature Physics 2, 620 (2006).

6. A. F. Young and P. Kim, Nature Physics 5, 222 (2009).

7. O. Klein, Z PHYS 53, 157 (1929).

8. K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov,

and A. K. Geim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 10451 (2005).]

We have come a long way since the first IC chip was invented in 1959 in TI and FairChild simultaneously. The invention of IC Chip has marked the beginning of a new historical era in Man-Kind’s history. This invention has been as crucial as the discovery of fire was or as momentous as the invention of wheel was.

Discovery of Fire brought the proto-human society down from its arboreal abode to its humble cave dwellings. This enabled the development of our society in rapid strides.

On the other hand the invention of wheel led to rapid exchange of ideas and commodities enabling a homogenization across the globe which would have been impossible otherwise.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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