# 4.7 Maxima/minima problems  (Page 2/10)

 Page 2 / 10

Find the critical point of the function $f\left(x,y\right)=x3+2xy-2x-4y.$

$\left(2,-5\right)$

The main purpose for determining critical points is to locate relative maxima and minima, as in single-variable calculus. When working with a function of one variable, the definition of a local extremum involves finding an interval around the critical point such that the function value is either greater than or less than all the other function values in that interval. When working with a function of two or more variables, we work with an open disk around the point.

## Definition

Let $z=f\left(x,y\right)$ be a function of two variables that is defined and continuous on an open set containing the point $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$ Then f has a local maximum at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ if

$f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)\ge f\left(x,y\right)$

for all points $\left(x,y\right)$ within some disk centered at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$ The number $f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ is called a local maximum value . If the preceding inequality holds for every point $\left(x,y\right)$ in the domain of $f,$ then $f$ has a global maximum (also called an absolute maximum ) at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$

The function $f$ has a local minimum at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ if

$f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)\le f\left(x,y\right)$

for all points $\left(x,y\right)$ within some disk centered at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$ The number $f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ is called a local minimum value . If the preceding inequality holds for every point $\left(x,y\right)$ in the domain of $f,$ then $f$ has a global minimum (also called an absolute minimum ) at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$

If $f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ is either a local maximum or local minimum value, then it is called a local extremum (see the following figure). The graph of z = 16 − x 2 − y 2 has a maximum value when ( x , y ) = ( 0 , 0 ) . It attains its minimum value at the boundary of its domain, which is the circle x 2 + y 2 = 16 .

In Maxima and Minima , we showed that extrema of functions of one variable occur at critical points. The same is true for functions of more than one variable, as stated in the following theorem.

## Fermat’s theorem for functions of two variables

Let $z=f\left(x,y\right)$ be a function of two variables that is defined and continuous on an open set containing the point $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$ Suppose ${f}_{x}$ and ${f}_{y}$ each exists at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$ If $f$ has a local extremum at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right),$ then $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)$ is a critical point of $f.$

## Second derivative test

Consider the function $f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}.$ This function has a critical point at $x=0,$ since $f\prime \left(0\right)=3{\left(0\right)}^{2}=0.$ However, $f$ does not have an extreme value at $x=0.$ Therefore, the existence of a critical value at $x={x}_{0}$ does not guarantee a local extremum at $x={x}_{0}.$ The same is true for a function of two or more variables. One way this can happen is at a saddle point    . An example of a saddle point appears in the following figure. Graph of the function z = x 2 − y 2 . This graph has a saddle point at the origin.

In this graph, the origin is a saddle point. This is because the first partial derivatives of $f\left(x,y\right)={x}^{2}-{y}^{2}$ are both equal to zero at this point, but it is neither a maximum nor a minimum for the function. Furthermore the vertical trace corresponding to $y=0$ is $z={x}^{2}$ (a parabola opening upward), but the vertical trace corresponding to $x=0$ is $z=\text{−}{y}^{2}$ (a parabola opening downward). Therefore, it is both a global maximum for one trace and a global minimum for another.

## Definition

Given the function $z=f\left(x,y\right),$ the point $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0},f\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)\right)$ is a saddle point if both ${f}_{0}\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)=0$ and ${f}_{y}\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right)=0,$ but $f$ does not have a local extremum at $\left({x}_{0},{y}_{0}\right).$

are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
can you provide the details of the parametric equations for the lines that defince doubly-ruled surfeces (huperbolids of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid). Can you explain each of the variables in the equations?

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