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The Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) of 2004 provided a definition of UDL extending the notion of meeting the needs of the widest range of students to include English language learners as well as students with disabilities. This definition provides guidance to faculty and instructional designers in institutions of higher education as they implement UDL in all courses. “Universal Design for Learning (UDL) means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that — (A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and (B) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient.” [HEOA, P.L. 110-315, §103(a) (24)].

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), a civil rights law for persons with disabilities, promotes equal access and opportunity to participate, live and work independently in their communities. The mandates under ADA prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public services, public accommodations and telecommunications. Individuals must receive reasonable accommodations based on their abilities and employers must meet design and accessibility guidelines in public spaces, buildings, transportation and facilities, employment practices. Accessibility to an education is guaranteed as individuals are provided with accommodations to fully participate and benefit from instruction (P.L. 101-336,104 Stat.328,42 U.S.C §12101 et seq.). In the 1998 amendments to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of added requirements that provided electronic and information technology be accessible to individuals with disabilities in federal government which as extended to state entities in 1999 and assured by the ATA of 1998. Section 508 web access standards (World Wide Web Consortium – W3C) are available to help users evaluate their websites (Edmonds, 2006). The Telecommunication Act of 1996, Section 255 mandates telecommunications equipment and services including cell phones and plans offer accessibility features.

These pieces of legislation designed to provide electronic and information technology accessible to persons with disabilities have laid the groundwork for creating an inclusive learning and living community for all learners. Many of the effective practices designed for teaching individuals with disabilities can be expanded to provide access to students who represent diverse life circumstances. For the purposes of this chapter, we will examine diversity by focusing on understanding challenges faced by students with disabilities, students from racial and ethnic minorities and international students. While this discussion is limited to these populations, the reader will recognize applications across other diverse student groups.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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