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Distance education courses that employ live or interactive audio or video conferencing, webcasts, discussion forums, videos, or internet, computer based management systems offer student opportunities for synchronous and asynchronous learning tailored to their needs. In addition online learning models allow users to participate at their convenience. Instructional experiences for students in distance education courses offers more control over the nature of content knowledge and level of interaction with peers, teachers and digital resources. Instructional technologies used in online instruction support traditional models of expository instruction as well as active and interactive learning (U.S. Department of Education, 2010b)

An overwhelming number of individuals access the internet daily to build communities without geographic or place-based restrictions, however students with disabilities or those with limited financial resources have less access to Internet resources (KirkHart and Lau, 2007). Even with access internet based applications have created barriers as a result of web-based design embedded media. Adaptable technology can increase access and flexibility in the digital campus community (Slatin, 2002). Online instruction offers students a unique opportunity to secure physical and intellectual access to a rich digital learning environment in higher education. Rowland, Mariger, Siegel and Whiting (2010) expand the notion of universal design for digital environments which includes electronic services - web pages, electronic materials, media, publications, simulations, games, social networking and online environments. Engagement in higher education and academic life is shaped by sharing and receiving information, learning, teaching, collaborating with others.

Designing and delivering instruction to diverse learners requires faculty to understand learning needs of their students before they design an accessible, flexible learning environment. Universal design offers higher education faculty and curriculum designers with a model that promotes access, and participation to 21 st century digital learning environments. Before we examine universal design and various models of effective practice, it is important to understand the legislative basis for providing access and examine selected populations of diverse learners in higher education.

Legislative background

Universal design for education was first defined in the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 as “a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products or services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional capabilities, which includes products and services that are directly accessible (without requiring assistive technologies) and products and services that are interoperable with assistive technologies” (29 U.S.C 3002, 20 U.S. C 1401[35]). The 1998 Assistive Technology Act (ATA) gave impetus to the creation of universally designed curriculum and the development of assistive technologies and services which were mandated in the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). THE IDEIA adopted the same definition as ATA but promoted inclusion of students with disabilities in general education. The IDEIA not only focused on creating accessible curriculum in general education but provided funding to “use technology, including technology with universal design principles and assistive technology devices to maximize accessibility to the general education curriculum for children with disabilities (20 U.S.C. 1412[a][16][E]).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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