# 4.6 Exponential and logarithmic models  (Page 4/16)

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Given the basic exponential growth    equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A={A}_{0}{e}^{kt},$ doubling time can be found by solving for when the original quantity has doubled, that is, by solving $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2{A}_{0}={A}_{0}{e}^{kt}.$

The formula is derived as follows:

Thus the doubling time is

$t=\frac{\mathrm{ln}2}{k}$

## Finding a function that describes exponential growth

According to Moore’s Law, the doubling time for the number of transistors that can be put on a computer chip is approximately two years. Give a function that describes this behavior.

The formula is derived as follows:

The function is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A={A}_{0}{e}^{\frac{\mathrm{ln}2}{2}t}.$

Recent data suggests that, as of 2013, the rate of growth predicted by Moore’s Law no longer holds. Growth has slowed to a doubling time of approximately three years. Find the new function that takes that longer doubling time into account.

$f\left(t\right)={A}_{0}{e}^{\frac{\mathrm{ln}2}{3}t}$

## Using newton’s law of cooling

Exponential decay can also be applied to temperature. When a hot object is left in surrounding air that is at a lower temperature, the object’s temperature will decrease exponentially, leveling off as it approaches the surrounding air temperature. On a graph of the temperature function, the leveling off will correspond to a horizontal asymptote at the temperature of the surrounding air. Unless the room temperature is zero, this will correspond to a vertical shift    of the generic exponential decay function. This translation leads to Newton’s Law of Cooling    , the scientific formula for temperature as a function of time as an object’s temperature is equalized with the ambient temperature

$T\left(t\right)=a{e}^{kt}+{T}_{s}$

This formula is derived as follows:

## Newton’s law of cooling

The temperature of an object, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T,$ in surrounding air with temperature $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{T}_{s}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ will behave according to the formula

$T\left(t\right)=A{e}^{kt}+{T}_{s}$
where
• $t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is time
• $A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the difference between the initial temperature of the object and the surroundings
• $k\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a constant, the continuous rate of cooling of the object

Given a set of conditions, apply Newton’s Law of Cooling.

1. Set $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{T}_{s}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ equal to the y -coordinate of the horizontal asymptote (usually the ambient temperature).
2. Substitute the given values into the continuous growth formula $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(t\right)=A{e}^{k}{}^{t}+{T}_{s}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to find the parameters $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k.$
3. Substitute in the desired time to find the temperature or the desired temperature to find the time.

## Using newton’s law of cooling

A cheesecake is taken out of the oven with an ideal internal temperature of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{165°F,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and is placed into a $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}35°F\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ refrigerator. After 10 minutes, the cheesecake has cooled to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{150°F}\text{.}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ If we must wait until the cheesecake has cooled to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{70°F}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ before we eat it, how long will we have to wait?

Because the surrounding air temperature in the refrigerator is 35 degrees, the cheesecake’s temperature will decay exponentially toward 35, following the equation

$T\left(t\right)=A{e}^{kt}+35$

We know the initial temperature was 165, so $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(0\right)=165.$

We were given another data point, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(10\right)=150,$ which we can use to solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k.$

This gives us the equation for the cooling of the cheesecake: $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\left(t\right)=130{e}^{–0.0123t}+35.$

Now we can solve for the time it will take for the temperature to cool to 70 degrees.

It will take about 107 minutes, or one hour and 47 minutes, for the cheesecake to cool to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{70°F}\text{.}$

Was Psyche rlly a Mortal woman
how much for book
Whose book?
Natalie
if it is for this book, psychological trauma and illuminations are each taxed differently depending on your mental preparedness to engage in the subject.
Nathaniel
does this apply to the career in applied behavior analysis?
Actually I really don't know much about psychology because my age is just 13 ..but I am interested in this subject.I feel it important..to know human behavior and about the world not materially but emotionally.. Can you help me from now to take the courses of psychology from now?
Nafisa
I can try. im only in my 2nd year
Nicole
read, take notes, study ask questions, study some more. you"ll do just fine. u made it this far.
jeddy
yes it does.
jeddy
age isn't a barrier.
jeddy
same here I am even 12 And I am interested in psychology reading and knowing is ok but what about exams
Vaishali
I have downloaded an app where I used to give exam per day
Nafisa
heyy.. I'm new here..can I know what is this chat box used for?
pakki
would you please recommend the app
Vaishali
here u can clear u doubts ..if u r having any problems
Nafisa
Hi can you help me? I need ideas for my thesis title related to psychology
Mercelyn
what's the subject?
Nicole
@nafisa name that app....
Ishan
psychology quiz
Nafisa
Don't learn psychology, learn what is the possibilities of mind then you will get know what is the psychology in real sens.
that's very truee
Nafisa
hii everyone I m new here
ROFIKUL
hmm
Nafisa
hello guys..go through q youtube and watch some psychological facts about human ....it is really very interesting....
Nafisa
Watch the illusions and be aware about it🤗
Nafisa
all information teaches something, its just not always truth.
Nathaniel
agreed
Teena
yes nafis what kind of help do you need
Wajid
no sir..
Nafisa
I was recently diagnosed schizophrenic. after a lifetime of major depression. time I did hear voices not for long. how does one know if they really schizophrenic?
because psychology is the dissection and study of the mind, some find it hard to believe a diagnosis under mental health concerns. if you feel you have been misdiagnosed, go to another doctor. be 100% honest in all questions asked. to lie to your doctor is much like lying to yourself/hurting self
on the contrary, a diagnosed schizophrenic doesn't always have episodes. it may start off very mild and progress over time. it may also be triggered by events/situations/certain states of mind the patient may experience
diagnosed schizophrenics are normally prescribed a medication that can help. if you feel your medication is not working, or that it may make matters worse, discuss this with your doctor so he/she can make adjustments. what works for one person may not work for them all, and so doctors need to know
i want to study about psychology b'coz my father has a mental illness. iwant to help my father to healed from her sicknessed.
Layca
Gaunt
what is mean by what?
to the questions ooo i can't find the answers
Fortune
Can you repeat the question or comment the page you saw it?
Haim
why they named it psychology
telll me
ABDUL
the word "psychology" comes from the Greek words "psyche" meaning life and "logos" meaning "explanation".
Soma
Psyche, in Greek mythology was a goddess who comes to represent the human soul's triumph over the misfortunes of life. The term psychology was coined. Psyche, meaning soul or mind and the root "ology" meaning the study of. I hope this helped.
JC
well done
ABDUL
what is chunking
Chunking is a process by which individual pieces of an information set are broken down and then grouped together in a meaningful whole.
Azquan
chunking is to information as syllabus is to word
ABDUL
what dose it means, operant and classic conditioning in short words?
scientific method, critical thinking.
the dealings with the thought process and human behavior.
jeddy
for acquiring knowledge by experimentation.
jeddy
study scientific study of mind and behavior.
jeddy
scientific study of the human mind and behavior.
jeddy
hey jeddy I have question s for you
Yussuf
hi what is behavioralism ?
jusem
what is psychology..?
Ania
the science of mental life.
Mikiyas
it focuses on understanding and modifying human behaviour
ABDUL
because emotion can't be measured.
only by the person having the emotion.
Jason
it is subjective feeling
suman
only placed within levels of itself
Teena
and accepted as extended or beginning versions of emotions that are completely free of restrictions
Teena
anyone know, (2+2)/2
start
Emotions can't be measured, but they can be recognized. To be able to recognize certain characteristics that'll give me an idea about an individual's state of mind.
jeddy
any one knows (2+2)/2
start
it is 6
suman
anyone (2+2)/2
start
2
😂
suman
then more then just recognize but to comprehend the emotions being observed separating your own emotions from the situation currently in.. and rationally gaging the environment.. while then pulling each possible emotional vibe or energy exerted from the human being observed
Teena
How does learning influence behaviour
our choice of study molds us and encourages us to practice what we learn. social structure also changes behavior based on the environment and peers. how we learn can be experimental as not everyone lesrns the same. some are more of a hands-on absorber, whereas others may learn better from listening
A confidence from personal knowledge. Not from having been taugbt. knowledge that you learned what was taught.
jeddy
life is choice, be ready for the best and be prepare for what yet to come in your way(Destiny)
Wayne
what is development
In what Context are you referring to
Hassan
the progression/degression/growth of something. it is interpreted most commonly in psychology as how something is created or formed. ex: When did you develop an interest in psychology?
when refering to physical, cognitive, and social development, these types of development are determined by many circumstances. such as demographics, biology, and personality/character
it is the apprehensions fluency based by the process of configurations to a design based on product/witness series noticeboards to note the stats on order to retail agreements on stated series order.
Kay
Evolving
jeddy
I'm on my first year of a psychology course, is there anything I should know? anything you wished you knew when you just started psychology ? because I feel like I'm walking into all of this blindly
hello
GOPAL
I feel exactly the same. Just about to start Psychology and Criminology. feeling slightly nervous 🙈
Sarah
and everything is online
Lia
only for a few weeks I believe. Unless I have read it wrong. I believe that they will try and filter everyone in.
Sarah
it's different for every country
Lia
hi
GOPAL
I start 9/14. Online as well.
LaQuisha
I know very little about Psychology
GOPAL
which area are you specialising in
Elle
yeah, everthing your just know, that psychology is everthing come out with, mind, behavior and emotion. and believe, once you study it, you will understand, wjy people act like that.
EDWARD
Don't be in the class with pre notions.. yh
ABDUL
after a successful job interview,Mr.Abhishek felt relaxed and calm,he stopped sweating and felt hungry,which part of his nervous system was activated
Hypothalamus
Words
what is the Borysenko model and why is it important?
Sarah
It explains the link between stress and diseases ie.. How long term stress on the mind or body can lead to chronic migraines, ulcers, depression...
Jennifer
I understand there is a link between stress and illness and disease. that when you are in high-stress situations for prolonged periods of time that the brain releases an abundance of stress hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and aldosterone. idk anymore than that.
Sarah
what is the strees anger
Divya
what is difference between illness and disease
Umair
anyone knows (2+2)/2
start
Hy everybody any one who can help me to understand the concept of Structuralism in easy words?
If you really considered looking into yourself find the reason of the possibilities or the environment and atmosphere in which you're placed with or without choice in voluntary or involuntary from birth to now, and also consider all existential extensions of yourself including spiritual recognition.
Darling
? and compare them to social,judicial, learned events,experiences, influences and dive into there branches? somehow reflects our mechanic motivations and has an effect on who we are and what we represent. ?😲
Darling
critical evaluation on attitude change and formation those that even exist
COMORDOR
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