For any algebraic expressions
$\text{}S\text{}$ and
$\text{}T\text{}$ and any positive real number
$\text{}b,\text{}$ where
${b}^{S}={b}^{T}\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}S=T.$
Definition of a logarithm
For any algebraic expression
S and positive real numbers
$\text{}b\text{}$ and
$\text{}c,\text{}$ where
$\text{}b\ne 1,$ ${\mathrm{log}}_{b}(S)=c\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}{b}^{c}=S.$
One-to-one property for logarithmic functions
For any algebraic expressions
S and
T and any positive real number
$\text{}b,\text{}$ where
$\text{}b\ne 1,$ ${\mathrm{log}}_{b}S={\mathrm{log}}_{b}T\text{}$ if and only if
$\text{}S=T.$
Key concepts
We can solve many exponential equations by using the rules of exponents to rewrite each side as a power with the same base. Then we use the fact that exponential functions are one-to-one to set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown.
When we are given an exponential equation where the bases are explicitly shown as being equal, set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown. See
[link] .
When we are given an exponential equation where the bases are
not explicitly shown as being equal, rewrite each side of the equation as powers of the same base, then set the exponents equal to one another and solve for the unknown. See
[link] ,
[link] , and
[link] .
When an exponential equation cannot be rewritten with a common base, solve by taking the logarithm of each side. See
[link] .
We can solve exponential equations with base
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e,$ by applying the natural logarithm of both sides because exponential and logarithmic functions are inverses of each other. See
[link] and
[link] .
After solving an exponential equation, check each solution in the original equation to find and eliminate any extraneous solutions. See
[link] .
When given an equation of the form
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}(S)=c,\text{}$ where
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is an algebraic expression, we can use the definition of a logarithm to rewrite the equation as the equivalent exponential equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{c}=S,\text{}$ and solve for the unknown. See
[link] and
[link] .
We can also use graphing to solve equations with the form
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}(S)=c.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ We graph both equations
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={\mathrm{log}}_{b}(S)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on the same coordinate plane and identify the solution as the
x- value of the intersecting point. See
[link] .
When given an equation of the form
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}S={\mathrm{log}}_{b}T,\text{}$ where
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}T\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ are algebraic expressions, we can use the one-to-one property of logarithms to solve the equation
$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}S=T\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for the unknown. See
[link] .
Combining the skills learned in this and previous sections, we can solve equations that model real world situations, whether the unknown is in an exponent or in the argument of a logarithm. See
[link] .
Section exercises
Verbal
How can an exponential equation be solved?
Determine first if the equation can be rewritten so that each side uses the same base. If so, the exponents can be set equal to each other. If the equation cannot be rewritten so that each side uses the same base, then apply the logarithm to each side and use properties of logarithms to solve.
No because a negative times a negative is a positive. No matter what you do you can never multiply the same number by itself and end with a negative
lurverkitten
Actually you can. you get what's called an Imaginary number denoted by i which is represented on the complex plane. The reply above would be correct if we were still confined to the "real" number line.
Liam
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
Someone should please solve it for me
Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5
simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a
multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15
Second one, I got Root 2
Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power)
I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method.
2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b
you were already given the 'm' and 'b'.
so..
y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line.
where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2
2=3x
x=3/2
then .
y=3/2X-2
I think
Given
co ordinates for x
x=0,(-2,0)
x=1,(1,1)
x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
I've run into this:
x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2)
Which expands to:
x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2))
The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes:
(r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1))
How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis
vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0