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To check the result, substitute x = 10 into log ( 3 x 2 ) log ( 2 ) = log ( x + 4 ) .

log ( 3 ( 10 ) 2 ) log ( 2 ) = log ( ( 10 ) + 4 )            log ( 28 ) log ( 2 ) = log ( 14 )                         log ( 28 2 ) = log ( 14 ) The solution checks .

Using the one-to-one property of logarithms to solve logarithmic equations

For any algebraic expressions S and T and any positive real number b , where b 1 ,

log b S = log b T if and only if S = T

Note, when solving an equation involving logarithms, always check to see if the answer is correct or if it is an extraneous solution.

Given an equation containing logarithms, solve it using the one-to-one property.

  1. Use the rules of logarithms to combine like terms, if necessary, so that the resulting equation has the form log b S = log b T .
  2. Use the one-to-one property to set the arguments equal.
  3. Solve the resulting equation, S = T , for the unknown.

Solving an equation using the one-to-one property of logarithms

Solve ln ( x 2 ) = ln ( 2 x + 3 ) .

           ln ( x 2 ) = ln ( 2 x + 3 )                   x 2 = 2 x + 3 Use the one-to-one property of the logarithm .      x 2 2 x 3 = 0 Get zero on one side before factoring . ( x 3 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0 Factor using FOIL .                x 3 = 0  or  x + 1 = 0 If a product is zero, one of the factors must be zero .                     x = 3  or  x = 1 Solve for  x .
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Solve ln ( x 2 ) = ln 1.

x = 1 or x = 1

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Solving applied problems using exponential and logarithmic equations

In previous sections, we learned the properties and rules for both exponential and logarithmic functions. We have seen that any exponential function can be written as a logarithmic function and vice versa. We have used exponents to solve logarithmic equations and logarithms to solve exponential equations. We are now ready to combine our skills to solve equations that model real-world situations, whether the unknown is in an exponent or in the argument of a logarithm.

One such application is in science, in calculating the time it takes for half of the unstable material in a sample of a radioactive substance to decay, called its half-life . [link] lists the half-life for several of the more common radioactive substances.

Substance Use Half-life
gallium-67 nuclear medicine 80 hours
cobalt-60 manufacturing 5.3 years
technetium-99m nuclear medicine 6 hours
americium-241 construction 432 years
carbon-14 archeological dating 5,715 years
uranium-235 atomic power 703,800,000 years

We can see how widely the half-lives for these substances vary. Knowing the half-life of a substance allows us to calculate the amount remaining after a specified time. We can use the formula for radioactive decay:

A ( t ) = A 0 e ln ( 0.5 ) T t A ( t ) = A 0 e ln ( 0.5 ) t T A ( t ) = A 0 ( e ln ( 0.5 ) ) t T A ( t ) = A 0 ( 1 2 ) t T

where

  • A 0 is the amount initially present
  • T is the half-life of the substance
  • t is the time period over which the substance is studied
  • y is the amount of the substance present after time t

Using the formula for radioactive decay to find the quantity of a substance

How long will it take for ten percent of a 1000-gram sample of uranium-235 to decay?

          y = 1000 e ln ( 0.5 ) 703,800,000 t       900 = 1000 e ln ( 0.5 ) 703,800,000 t After 10% decays, 900 grams are left .        0.9 = e ln ( 0.5 ) 703,800,000 t Divide by 1000 . ln ( 0.9 ) = ln ( e ln ( 0.5 ) 703,800,000 t ) Take ln of both sides . ln ( 0.9 ) = ln ( 0.5 ) 703,800,000 t ln ( e M ) = M            t = 703,800,000 × ln ( 0.9 ) ln ( 0.5 ) years Solve for  t .            t 106,979,777 years
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Questions & Answers

what is set?
Kelvin Reply
a colony of bacteria is growing exponentially doubling in size every 100 minutes. how much minutes will it take for the colony of bacteria to triple in size
Divya Reply
I got 300 minutes. is it right?
Patience
no. should be about 150 minutes.
Jason
It should be 158.5 minutes.
Mr
ok, thanks
Patience
100•3=300 300=50•2^x 6=2^x x=log_2(6) =2.5849625 so, 300=50•2^2.5849625 and, so, the # of bacteria will double every (100•2.5849625) = 258.49625 minutes
Thomas
what is the importance knowing the graph of circular functions?
Arabella Reply
can get some help basic precalculus
ismail Reply
What do you need help with?
Andrew
how to convert general to standard form with not perfect trinomial
Camalia Reply
can get some help inverse function
ismail
Rectangle coordinate
Asma Reply
how to find for x
Jhon Reply
it depends on the equation
Robert
yeah, it does. why do we attempt to gain all of them one side or the other?
Melissa
whats a domain
mike Reply
The domain of a function is the set of all input on which the function is defined. For example all real numbers are the Domain of any Polynomial function.
Spiro
Spiro; thanks for putting it out there like that, 😁
Melissa
foci (–7,–17) and (–7,17), the absolute value of the differenceof the distances of any point from the foci is 24.
Churlene Reply
difference between calculus and pre calculus?
Asma Reply
give me an example of a problem so that I can practice answering
Jenefa Reply
x³+y³+z³=42
Robert
dont forget the cube in each variable ;)
Robert
of she solves that, well ... then she has a lot of computational force under her command ....
Walter
what is a function?
CJ Reply
I want to learn about the law of exponent
Quera Reply
explain this
Hinderson Reply
what is functions?
Angel Reply
A mathematical relation such that every input has only one out.
Spiro
yes..it is a relationo of orders pairs of sets one or more input that leads to a exactly one output.
Mubita
Is a rule that assigns to each element X in a set A exactly one element, called F(x), in a set B.
RichieRich
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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