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RC Circuits for timing

RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuits are commonly used for timing purposes. A mundane example of this is found in the ubiquitous intermittent wiper systems of modern cars. The time between wipes is varied by adjusting the resistance in an RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit. Another example of an RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit is found in novelty jewelry, Halloween costumes, and various toys that have battery-powered flashing lights. (See [link] for a timing circuit.)

A more crucial use of RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuits for timing purposes is in the artificial pacemaker, used to control heart rate. The heart rate is normally controlled by electrical signals generated by the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is on the wall of the right atrium chamber. This causes the muscles to contract and pump blood. Sometimes the heart rhythm is abnormal and the heartbeat is too high or too low.

The artificial pacemaker is inserted near the heart to provide electrical signals to the heart when needed with the appropriate time constant. Pacemakers have sensors that detect body motion and breathing to increase the heart rate during exercise to meet the body’s increased needs for blood and oxygen.

Part a shows a charging circuit containing cell of e m f script E connected to a resistor R and capacitor C and a closed switch to complete the circuit. The current is shown to flow clockwise through this arm of the circuit alone. A bulb of high resistance R is connected across the capacitor. Part b shows a discharging circuit containing a cell of e m f script E connected to a resistor R and capacitor C and a closed switch to complete the circuit. A bulb of low resistance R is connected across the capacitor. Current flows clockwise through the arm containing the capacitor and the low resistance bulb. Part c is a graph showing variation of voltage verses time for the bulb in above circuit. The voltage is plotted along the vertical axis and the time is plotted along the horizontal axis. The curve has a smooth rise from the origin, reaches a plateau at threshold value of voltage where it begins to drop and rise as a small sawtooth wave with maxima lying along the threshold line.
(a) The lamp in this RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} circuit ordinarily has a very high resistance, so that the battery charges the capacitor as if the lamp were not there. When the voltage reaches a threshold value, a current flows through the lamp that dramatically reduces its resistance, and the capacitor discharges through the lamp as if the battery and charging resistor were not there. Once discharged, the process starts again, with the flash period determined by the RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} constant τ size 12{τ} {} . (b) A graph of voltage versus time for this circuit.

Calculating time: RC Circuit in a heart defibrillator

A heart defibrillator is used to resuscitate an accident victim by discharging a capacitor through the trunk of her body. A simplified version of the circuit is seen in [link] . (a) What is the time constant if an 8.00-μF size 12{8 "." "00"-mF} {} capacitor is used and the path resistance through her body is 1.00 × 10 3 Ω ? (b) If the initial voltage is 10.0 kV, how long does it take to decline to 5.00 × 10 2 V ?

Strategy

Since the resistance and capacitance are given, it is straightforward to multiply them to give the time constant asked for in part (a). To find the time for the voltage to decline to 5.00 × 10 2 V , we repeatedly multiply the initial voltage by 0.368 until a voltage less than or equal to 5.00 × 10 2 V is obtained. Each multiplication corresponds to a time of τ size 12{τ} {} seconds.

Solution for (a)

The time constant τ size 12{τ} {} is given by the equation τ = RC size 12{τ= ital "RC"} {} . Entering the given values for resistance and capacitance (and remembering that units for a farad can be expressed as s / Ω size 12{s/ %OMEGA } {} ) gives

τ = RC = ( 1.00 × 10 3 Ω ) ( 8 . 00 μF ) = 8 . 00 ms. size 12{τ= ital "RC"= \( "1000" %OMEGA \) \( 8 "." "00" μF \) =8 "." "00"" ms"} {}

Solution for (b)

In the first 8.00 ms, the voltage (10.0 kV) declines to 0.368 of its initial value. That is:

V = 0 . 368 V 0 = 3.680 × 10 3 V at  t = 8 . 00 ms. size 12{t=8 "." "00"" ms"} {}

(Notice that we carry an extra digit for each intermediate calculation.) After another 8.00 ms, we multiply by 0.368 again, and the voltage is

V = 0.368 V = 0.368 3.680 × 10 3 V = 1.354 × 10 3 V at t = 16.0 ms.

Similarly, after another 8.00 ms, the voltage is

V ′′ = 0.368 V = ( 0.368 ) ( 1.354 × 10 3 V ) = 498 V at t = 24 .0 ms.

Discussion

So after only 24.0 ms, the voltage is down to 498 V, or 4.98% of its original value. Such brief times are useful in heart defibrillation, because the brief but intense current causes a brief but effective contraction of the heart. The actual circuit in a heart defibrillator is slightly more complex than the one in [link] , to compensate for magnetic and AC effects that will be covered in Magnetism .

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics ii. OpenStax CNX. Nov 29, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11458/1.2
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