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Solvents are required to make the photoresist a liquid, which allows the resist to be spun onto a substrate. The solvents used in negative photoresists are non-polar organic solvents such as toluene, xylene, and halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. In positive resists, a variety of organic solvents such as ethyl cellosolve acetate, ethoxyethyl acetate, diglyme, or cyclohexanone may be used.

Photosensitizers are used to control or cause polymer reactions resulting in the photosolubilization or crosslinking of the polymer. The sensitizers may also be used to broaden or narrow the wavelength response of the photoresist. Bisazide sensitizers are used in negative photoresists while positive photoresists utilize diazonaphthoquinones. One measure of photosensitizers is their quantum efficiencies, the fraction of photons which result in photochemical reactions; the quantum efficiency of positive diazonaphthoquinone photoresist sensitizers has been measured to be 0.2 - 0.3 and the quantum efficiency of negative bis-arylazide sensitizers is in the range of 0.5 - 1.0.

Additives are also introduced into photoresists depending on the specific needs of the application. Additives may be used to increase photon absorption or to control light within the resist film. Adhesion promoters such as hexamethyldisilazane and additives to improve substrate coating are also commonly used.

Negative photoresist chemistry

The matrix resin material used in the formulation of these (negative) resists is a synthetic rubber obtained by a Ziegler-Natta polymerization of isoprene which results in the formation of poly(cis-isoprene). Acid-catalyzation of poly(cis-isoprene) produces a partially cyclized polymer material; the cyclized polymer has a higher glass transition temperature, better structural properties, and higher density. On the average, microelectronic resist polyisoprenes contain 1-3 rings per cyclic unit, with 5-20% unreacted isoprene units remaining'. The resultant material is extremely soluble in non-polar, organic solvents including toluene, xylene, and halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

The condensation of para-azidobenzaldehyde with a substituted cyclohexanone produces bis-arylazide sensitizers. To maximize the absorption of a particular light source, the absorbance spectrum of the photoresist may be shifted by making structural modifications to the sensitizers; for example, by using substituted benzaldehydes, the absorption peak may be shifted to longer wavelengths. A typical bisazide-cyclized polyisoprene photoresist formulation may contain 97 parts cyclized polyisoprene to 3 parts bisazide in a (10 wt%) xylene solvent.

All negative photoresists function by cross-linking a chemically reactive polymer via a photosensitive agent that initiates the chemical cross-linking reaction. In the bisazide-cyclized polyisoprene resists, the absorption of photons by the photosensitive bisazide in the photoresist results in an insoluble crosslinked polymer. Upon exposure to light, the bisazide sensitizers decompose into nitrogen and highly reactive chemical intermediates, called nitrenes [link] . The nitrines react to produce polymer linkages and three-dimensional cross-linked structures that are less soluble in the developer solution.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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